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Textbook and Lecture Notes (combined) Lecture 1

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Lecture 1 Chlamydomonas Chlamydomonas (CLAMMY)- unicellular green algae w/ single chloroplast, multiple mitochondria, 2 flagella can grow in the dark, obtaining energy from organic carbon source (an organism) diverged from plants extromophiles- can live in extreme zones and flexible on how it obtains nutrients LCA for plants and animals likely had cilia/flagella. competition for survival underground likely lead to eyespot, sensory flagelle and more transporter gene functions ➔ anything they can to get nutrients! Complexity (Evolution p.370-372) complexity- the definition is very questionable. Hypothesis- evolution is associated with an increase in complexity -assumes complexity ca be measured Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. plants and animals more complex than protists. ➔ I would caution this statement (think of Maxwell lecture last term) ➔ does bigger really mean more complex? To measure complexity: Most common- #cell types and ‐ in organism size, life style evolution • genome size or total # genes • gene copy number (ploidy) • ‐ size organism over time • # Protein encoding genes • #parts or units in organism (ie. segments, organs, tissues) • # cell types • ‐ compartmentalization, subdivision or specialized function over evolution • # gene, #gene networks or cell-cell ineractions requ. to form parts of organism • # interactions between parts of organism ➔ ▯ functional complexity/integration **➔ ➔ Most common used metric of complexity is # different cell types possessed by organism ⇒ think of human zygote (unicellular) into blastula (multicellular) into baby Embryonic development and ‐ cell variety associated with ‐ organismal size. organismal size rarely used because it changes ➔ evolution often leads to decreased size ie, parasitest in animals, animals living between sand grains on beach, lg. elephants living on island Using different criteria same size organisms have different level complexity Parasite -evolved to simplify and also lose many organs (decrease size) -life cycle very complex w/ multiple intermediate hosts ➔ ▯ survival and amount of parasites due to multiple hosts (can preserve resources with host and live longer too!) 1.1 Light and Life p.1-3 Volume 1 Light has 2 purposes: 1. energy source (direct or indirect sustain organism) 2. info source for viewing physical world around you (light energy must be captured by organism regardless) Clamy uses light for both! Clamy- single celled, photosynthetic eukaryote found in lakes and ponds single large chloroplast that harvests light energy ➔ energy into energy-rich molecules through photosynthesis eyespot- light sensor to gather info about location and intensity of light source 1.1 a What is light? Sun converts Hydrogen➔ helium and produces HUGE energy➔ electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic radiation classified by wavelenths (peak to peak) ‑ Gamma (highest intensity, frequency, shortest wavelength) ‑ X-ray UV Visible Light (violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, red) ➔ think red nearest to infrared Infrared ‑ Microwaves ‑ Radio Waves (lowest intensity, lowest freq, , longest wavelength Light- portion of electromagnetic spectrum that humans can detect with our eyes -narrow portion (400-700nm) -in physics, light includes more of sprectrum ∴ UV, visible and Infrared and used to describe -hard to physically describe (no mass, behaves like wave while travelling) -experiments suggest it’s composed of photons (stream of energy particles) Particle-wave duality- light has properties of both a wave and stream of photons ➔ compromise➔ light = wave of photons Inverse relation
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