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Chapter 8

Mitosis and Binary fission Textbook Notes Chapter 8

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Chapter 8 p.160 From Single Celled Organisms to Kingdoms Cell Must be coordinated and grow and replicate at correct rate to function 3 Main Cellular Processes: 1) DNA replication 2) Dynamically changing cytoskeleton 3) cell cycle “checkpoints” 8.2 Prokaryotic Cell Cycle p.163 Process called binary fission (splitting into 2 pces) 3 Periods: after birth cells may grow THEN B period=growing and initiating DNA synthesis C period=chromosomes are finished replicated and separate to opposite cell ends D period= membrane pinches between chromosomes and 2 daughter cells formed 8.2a Prokaryotic cells spend most of life replicating • Bacteria & archaea use DNA as hereditary info • DNA usually stored in chromosome (tight little double helix package) • chromosome located in nucleotide • W/ abundant nutrients period B not needed. • they can grow quick enough to jump to period D as soon as DNA replicates & chromosomes move ▯ ▯ eg. E.coli cells double every 20 mins 8.2b Binary Fission in Detail (see figure 8.3) pg 163 origin of replication (ori) =middle of cell where enzymes for DNA replication located after ori dup., 2 new origins move to opposite cell poles ▯ ▯ => BUT WHY? still unknown Then, => cytoplasmic diversion w/ ▯ ▯ inward constiction of cytokinetic ring of cytoskeletal prtns new plasma membrane & cell wall is lined and ready to divide cell into 2 equal parts 8.2c Evolution from binary fission to mitosis • differences of Pro & Eukaryotic cells • -from 1 chromosome to multiple (cannot have any replication issues) • -eukaryotic have DNA in nucleus and nuc membrane, ▯ ▯ ==> cannot split the same ==> mitosis instead! mitosis- ability to attach chromatids togther to keep track of complicated DNA chromatid newly created strands of DNA binary fission> prokarytic cells> dinoflagellates (bind to inner membrane >yeasts&diatoms (spindles pull w/o nuclear envelope dissassembly)>animals 8.3 Mitosis p164 8.3a The chromosome DNA (double stranded helix) + proteins for stabilization, replication and packaging make up chromosome most have 2 copies o
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