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Cellular Respiration -- BIology 1002.pdf

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

Why phosphorylate? -we phosphorylate glucose to make it more reactive - because Phosporus is negatively charged, we phosphorylate glucose to make it negatively charged as meaning, it will stay in our cells because since it is negative it cannot freely diffuse through our membranes -also, you synthesize NADH ** some energy makes ATP, and some electrons are transferred to make NADH Where does glycolysis occur? - no Oxygen involved (like Citric Acid Cycle) - in the cytosol - end product: two molecules of pyruvate Tell me about pyruvate: - has LESS free energy - makes sense, because you’ve taken some of the energy to make NADP and ATP Substrate-Level Phosphoryllation - this is when we make ATP - and enzyme is required to bring substrate and ATP together - you get transfer of the PHOSPATE GROUP TO SUBSTRATE to make ATP - the enzyme can only bind sugar and ADP. -it transfer the extra P to sugar [one of the two ways we make ATP in a cell] Linking Glycolysis to the Citric Acid Cycle Glycolyis  Cytosol Citric Acid Cycle  Matrix [note: in eukaryotes, the reactions for cellular respiration takes place in mitochondria] -pyruvate has LOTS OF FREE ENERGY, but one part of the molecule has no energy it can use - decarboxylation + enzyme occurs - decarboxy removes CO2 - once removed, NADH is made - what is left after making NADH and removing CO2, coenzyme A reacts - makes molecule more reaction = ACETYL COA [ this is the end product of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex] Citric Acid Cycle What is the goal? - there is still energy from ACETYL COA, we want to get the energy out of it - CoA -- > Citrate (which has even more free energy) - make NADH: to make lots of reactions to make entropy of cells low - after the Citric Acid cycle, all the carbon has been breathed - where is the energy? IN NADH the goal of cellular respiration: To get the energy of glucose into a usable form = ATP Your cell does not use glucose directly to power anabolic reactions Glucose uses the entire pathway PART TWO Electron Transport Chain: - has three systems - NADH dehydrogenase oxidize NADH (think Splitting of Water) Product of electron transport of mitochondrion: just H20 vs photosynthesis: NADPH Instead of light, NADH changes redox potential Why oxygen? - terminal electron acceptor, that is why you need so much of it of the respiratory chain - if What is the link between ATP and electron transport chain? - it is chemiosmosis - li
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