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Chapter 8

chapter 8

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Western University
Biology 1225
Michael Butler

Chapter 8: How Cells Reproduce We intuitively consider the fusion of two gametes to create a single, fertilized, zygote as the beginning of an organism's life cycle. The cell must go through several (maybe several hundred) rounds of cell division to produce the large population of cells needed to construct the body of a multicellular organism. Throughout this process of cell division the genetic material must be replicated, condensed and partitioned faithfully into daughter cells. This type of cell division is called "mitosis". For sexually reproducing organisms, the gametes mentioned above are created in gonads by a specialized type of cell division that must reduce the amount of genetic material by half. This is "meiosis". Our body (somatic) cells are diploid, our gametes are haploid. *figure 8.5 and 8.13 1. What is the ultimate purpose of mitosis? 2. In animals, all of the following processes are the result of mitosis except A. growth of the young organism. B. asexual reproduction (in some cases). C . repair of injured tissue. D. production of the gametes. 3. Think about the following statement carefully as you complete the blanks. During the _____ phase of _____________ of the cell cycle, the chromosomes undergo replication, so that after this phase each chromosome is now composed of two ______________ joined at the ________________. 4. During what stage(s) does synapsis and crossing-over take place in meiosis? __________________ 5. What is the earliest stage at which the daughter cells are haploid? __________________ 6. At what stage can independent ( random) assortment first be seen? Explain your answer. 7.
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