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Chapter 12

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Biology 1225
Michael Butler

Chapter 12: Processes of Evolution Biological evolution is genetic change in a line of descent (lineages) through successive generations. Members of a population generally have the same number and kinds of genes, which give rise to the same assortment of traits. As you learned in your examination of genetics in the first half of this course, in a population, each gene may exist in two or more slightly different forms (alleles). Different individuals don’t necessarily inherit the same alleles so they may differ in the details of their traits. Natural selection is simply the result of a difference in survival and reproduction among individuals who differ in one or more traits. A species consists of one or more populations of individuals that can interbreed under natural conditions and produce fertile offspring, and that are reproductively isolated from other such populations. The textbook fails to make it clear that there ar
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