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Biology 2217B
Richard Gardiner

Lab 3 – Cereal Grains and Non0Cereal Grain Crops Objectives - Understand the structure of the plant, flower, and grain of the Poaceae (grass family) - Understand the properties and uses of wheat, barley, and corn - Learn the properties and uses of three non-cereal grain crops Grains vs. Cereals - Grain: seeds or seed-like fruits of plants (that we do not consume) o Important family: Poaceae o Sugar grain - Cereals: edible grains produced by annual Poaceae o Seed coat fused to ovary wall  Called a caryopsis o Barley, wheat, oat, corn, rice Important Species - Bread wheat = - Barley = o Every node has a fertile inflorescence o Know difference between 6 row and 2 row barley and how 6 row barley is better for humans o Infloresence (flower stalk/head) type is important, different type of flowers  Made up of 2 flowers (Grasses)  In a group (inflorescence) called a spike - Rice and Oats o Are in a floppy branch  Panicle o Rice paddy pools  all that water will be absorbed by rice - Wheat o 4 Latin names associated with wheat  Only genus that has gluten o Evolved over time (please see display)  There are increasing ploidy number with hybridization  Increasing gluten content, nutrition, tastier, etc. o Selected for non-shattering grains o One of earliest known domesticated cereals o Primary use: flour o Milling: divide grains into bran, wheat germ and endosperm  DESCRIBE PROCESS ABOUT MILLING, malting process, combines o Contains gluten (purpose in bread  does not make bread rise, but keeps them risen/white and fluffy)  Yeast makes bread rise  Takes sugars in flour and ferments them into sugar and …  Air bubbles get trapped into gluten then evaporates  Gluten protein denatures and holds bread in place • People can become allergic to gluten or the preservatives in bread Type of wheat Amount of Gluten Use Durum High Pasta Hard wheat High Bread Soft wheat Low Cakes and pastry Barley - Latin name? - (no) gluten (but a protein present that is gluten-like) - Uses: flatbread, livestock feed, beer - Barley can crosspollinate with anything in their family  like a “whore” and that is a vulgar name  Hordeum vulgaris - Malting is not beer production  it is germinating barley just enough that endosperm breaks down to sugar  press sugar out that is called malt  - 3 ingredients in beer according to Bavarian law: malt, hops, yeast Non-Cereal Grains - Plants that are not part of grass family but we use like a cereal - Buckwheat (has more protein t
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