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Chapter 11

2483:Ecology Chapter 11.pdf

14 Pages

Course Code
Biology 2483A
Hugh Henry

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Chapter 11 CompetitionAn interaction between individuals in which each is harmed by their Competitionshared use of a limiting resourceCompetition occurs between species that share the use of a resource that limits the growth survival or reproduction of each speciesInterspecic competition Interaction between two species in which each is harmed when they both use the same limiting resourceIntraspecic competition Between individuals of a single speciesResources are features of the environment required for growth survival or reproduction and which can be consumed to the point of depletionExamples of resourcesFoodLight for plantsWater in terrestrial habitatsSpace especially for sessile organismsFor mobile animals space for refuge nesting etcSpecies are also inuenced by physical factors abiotic that are not consumed such as temperature pH salinityThese factors are not considered to be resourcesCompetition reduces availability of resourcesExperiments with two diatom species by Tilman et al 1981 showed that when each species was grown alone a stable population size was reachedWhen grown together they competed for silica and one species drove the other to extinctionCompetition can intensify when resources are scarceCompetition among plants should increase in nutrientpoor soilsWilson and Tilman 1993 studied grass plants that were transplanted into fertilized and unfertilized plots Each plot type had three treatments1Neighbors left intact belowground and aboveground competition2 Neighbor roots left intact but neighbor shoots tied back belowground competition3Neighbor roots and shoots both removed no competitionBelowground competition treatment 2 was most intense in nitrogenlimited plots Aboveground competition for light increased when light levels were lowHow important is competitionConnell 1983 found that competition was important for 50 of 215 species in 72 studiesGurevitch et al 1992 analyzed the magnitude of competition in 93 species in 46 studies Competition had signicant effects on a wide range of organisms
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