Biology 2581B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Gene Duplication, Horizontal Gene Transfer, Transposable Element

114 views2 pages
10 Jan 2018
Wednesday, January 10, 2018
LEC #1 Readings
The molecular nature of alleles!
-2 alleles of the same gene code for di. traits!
-where they dier is in the DNA sequence!
-for ex: in round and wrinkled peas— R allele codes for a DNA sequence that makes
the active enzyme, whereas r-allele codes for inactive enzyme. !
-r-allele contains 800 extra bp of DNA that disrupts the normal sequence, this
could’ve came from transposons. !
Horizontal Gene Transfer!
-some bacteria acquired genetic information from other species of bacteria, OR
eukaryotes —> horizontal gene transfer
-genes are passed on b/w individuals by NON-reproductive mech.’s!
-ex: conjugation, transformation, transduction. !
-eukaryotes only pass genes on via vertical transfer (by generation) !
-some bacteria gain genes that allow infection/ resistance to antibiotics. !
-since bacterial genes are obtained by both vertical & horizontal gene transfer, we
question whether a “species” exist within bacteria!
-since a species = sets of gene in common and evolve together!
-we can’t tell whether a group of bacteria with similar genes evolved from the
same ancestor, or whether they obtained it from their environment. !
-bacterial are able to gain/ lose DNA!
-lose by simple DNA deletion!
-gain by gene duplication & insertion of transposable elements (from self), or
horizontal gene transfer (from others)!
-2 bacteria that are distantly related can also undergo horizontal gene transfer, by:!
-transformation: taking up DNA from environment!
find more resources at
find more resources at
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 2 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.