Biology 2581B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Gene Duplication, Horizontal Gene Transfer, Transposable Element

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10 Jan 2018
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Wednesday, January 10, 2018
LEC #1 Readings
The molecular nature of alleles!
-2 alleles of the same gene code for di. traits!
-where they dier is in the DNA sequence!
-for ex: in round and wrinkled peas— R allele codes for a DNA sequence that makes
the active enzyme, whereas r-allele codes for inactive enzyme. !
-r-allele contains 800 extra bp of DNA that disrupts the normal sequence, this
could’ve came from transposons. !
Horizontal Gene Transfer!
-some bacteria acquired genetic information from other species of bacteria, OR
eukaryotes —> horizontal gene transfer
-genes are passed on b/w individuals by NON-reproductive mech.’s!
-ex: conjugation, transformation, transduction. !
-eukaryotes only pass genes on via vertical transfer (by generation) !
-some bacteria gain genes that allow infection/ resistance to antibiotics. !
-since bacterial genes are obtained by both vertical & horizontal gene transfer, we
question whether a “species” exist within bacteria!
-since a species = sets of gene in common and evolve together!
-we can’t tell whether a group of bacteria with similar genes evolved from the
same ancestor, or whether they obtained it from their environment. !
-bacterial are able to gain/ lose DNA!
-lose by simple DNA deletion!
-gain by gene duplication & insertion of transposable elements (from self), or
horizontal gene transfer (from others)!
-2 bacteria that are distantly related can also undergo horizontal gene transfer, by:!
-transformation: taking up DNA from environment!
#1
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