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Chapter 17

Biology 1001A Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Macroevolution, Selective Breeding, Population Genetics


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1001A
Professor
Tom Haffie
Chapter
17

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September 18th, 2015
Biology 1000A
Notes of Chapter 17
17.1 What is Evolution?
Evolution: gradual change
Biological evolution: gradual change of populations or organisms over time (measure in
generations)
17.2 Pre-Darwin Knowledge of the Natural World
17.2a Early views of Organisms:
Aristotle:
Examined the form and variety of organisms in their environment
Believed that all object have fixed characteristics
“Ladderlike” classification of nature (eg. Minerals plants animals)
Theory merged with religion God created these characteristics
Natural theology: No NEW species can arise, categorize all of God’s creations
within Great Chain of Being
Other people:
Francis Bacon: importance of observation, find evidence to support a theory
Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo, René Descartes, Sir Isaac Newton
Developed new disciplines: biogeography, morphology, geology
Biogeography:
The study of world distribution of plant and animals
Countered religious preach: Why are some species in certain areas? Different species?
Comparative Morphology:
Compared the anatomical structure, similarities and differences
Homologous structures: equivalent structures
Eg. Similar LOCATIONS of limbs in dolphins, bats and pigs, although
SIZE is considerably different
Similar development in embryos
Again, countered religion: Why use same material for different
species?
Vestigial structures: structures with no use
Leclerc Comte de Buffon: asked why body parts with no function?
Maybe animals changed since their creation?
Maybe these vestigial structures were useful to ancestors
Time has affected organisms
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