Biology 1201A Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Microevolution, Macroevolution, Inheritance Of Acquired Characteristics
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History of Evolution
When sprayed with the insecticide, resistant flies have enhanced fitness: they survive to
reproduce, while the others around them die. The flies’ short life cycle and high reproductive
rate ensure the rapid spread of the resistant mutation in the fly population.
This example shows how the combination of a genetic-based change (a small mutation) and
strong selective pressure (lethal organophosphate insecticide) has altered the population of
Australian sheep blowflies over time.
This also shows how human interference can result in evolution by natural selection.
Evolution: means gradual change
Biological evolution: refers to gradual change of populations or organisms over time,
measuring time in generations rather than years.
Adaptive Traits: a genetically based characteristic, reserved by natural selection, that
increases an organisms likelihood of survival or its reproductive output
not all gradual change is biological evolution.
Aristotle examined the form and variety of organisms in their natural environments and
believes that both inanimate objects and living organisms had fixed characteristics later his
classification was being merged with the biblical and other accounts of creation
Biological research was dominated by natural theology, which sought to name and catalogue
all of God’s creation.
Scala Naturae, or Great Chain of Being: Aristotle’s ladder of life
Sir Francis Bacon: established the importance of observation, experimentation, and finding
evidence to support a proposal or theory = inductive reasoning
-collective work of these scientists gave rise to three new disciplines – biography,
comparative morphology and geology
Carolus Linnaeus: For the greater glory of god
Biogeography: Studies of the world distribution of plants and animals
Comparative Morphology: Animals have similar anatomical structures
-naturalists compared the morphology (anatomical structure) of organisms, they discovered
i.e. front legs of pigs, the flippers of dolphins, the wings of bats differ markedly in
size, shape and function but these limbs have similar locations in the mammals’ bodies and are
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