Biology 1225 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Nitric Oxide, Limiting Reagent, Nitrogen Dioxide

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1 Feb 2013
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Chemistry Chapter Four
Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations
A chemical reaction is a process in which one set of substances (reactants) is
converted to a new set of substances (products). The main evidences that prove
that a chemical reaction has occurred are:
a) Colour change
b) Formation of a solid (precipitate) within a clear solution
c) Evolution of a gas
d) Evolution or absorption of heat
To write the shorthand representation of a chemical equation certain steps must be
followed. Consider the chemical reaction: nitrogen monoxide + oxygen nitrogen
dioxide
1. Write the reaction using chemical symbols
NO + O2 NO2
2. Balance the chemical equation
2NO + 1O2 2 NO2
*** Balancing equations***
Remember these rules when balancing an equation
1. An equation can be balanced only by adjusting the coefficients of formulas.
2. Never introduce extraneous atoms to balance.
NO + O2 NO2 + O
3. Never change a formula for the purpose of balancing an equation.
NO + O2 NO3
When balancing equations, using these strategies will result in efficient balancing of
chemical equations.
Balance elements that occur in only one compound of each side first.
Balance free elements last.
Balance unchanged polyatomics (or other groups of atoms) as groups.
Fractional coefficients are acceptable and can be cleared at the end by
multiplication.
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