Textbook Notes (378,588)
CA (167,186)
Western (16,620)
Biology (1,202)
1225 (113)
Chapter 16

chapter 16 bio 1225 notes.docx

7 Pages
73 Views

Department
Biology
Course Code
Biology 1225
Professor
Michael Butler

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
1
Chapter 16 Population Ecology
*16.4 and 16.5 are excluded from online test # 3
**** For Final only need to know what is meant by:
- Carrying Capacity
- Biotic Potential
- Population
- * there will be no other questions from this chapter on the final
exam
2
16.2 Characteristics of Populations pg. 317
demographics statistics that describe a population
ecology the study of interactions among organisms and between
organisms and their environment (populations)
***Population A group of organisms of the same species who live in
a specific location and breed with one another more often than they
breed with members of other populations.
Example: The Geese population In the past nearly all Geese seen in
the US were migratory. They nested in Northern Canada flew to the
US for the winter then returned to Canada tomate.

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 16 Population Ecology *16.4 and 16.5 are excluded from online test # 3 **** For Final only need to know what is meant by: - Carrying Capacity - Biotic Potential - Population - * there will be no other questions from this chapter on the final exam 1 16.2 Characteristics of Populations pg. 317 demographics – statistics that describe a population ecology – the study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment (populations) ***Population – A group of organisms of the same species who live in a specific location and breed with one another more often than they breed with members of other populations. Example: The Geese population – In the past nearly all Geese seen in the US were migratory. They nested in Northern Canada – flew to the US for the winter then returned to Canada tomate. 2 Populations can be described by 1. Population Size - number of individuals of a species in a population 2. Population Density – the number of individuals in a certain area such as the number of frogs per acre of rains forest 3. Population Distribution – the location of individuals relative to one another. a. Clumped distribution Look at page 317 – members of a population tend to be closer to one another than would be predicted by chance alone. – A patchy distribution of resources encourages clumping because members of the population tend to gather where there are resources like food available – There are benefits of living together in a social group – Limited dispersal ability also causes clumping – Asexual reproduction can also lead to clusters (clumping) – Example: Canada geese live together where there is Grass and water ***Most populations have a clumped distribution b. Near Uniform Distribution - Competition for resources with individuals more evenly spaced than would be expected by chance - Example: Nesting Sea Birds – birds aggressively repels other birds that can get within reach of its beak c. Random distribution - arises when resources are uniformly available and proximity to others neither benefits or harms individuals - Example: Dandilions look at pg. 317 ***Rare in Nature - 4. Population studies typically utilize sampling methods. A sample of the population is studied, then that information is used to infer the size and traits of the population as a whole. Such methods run the risk of sampling error, which can be minimized by using a large sample size. 3 16.3 Population Growth pg. 318 *** Biotic potential – maximum possible population growth under optimal conditions *** carrying capacity – maximum number of individuals of a species that a specific environment can sustain density-dependent limiting factor – factor whose negative effect on growth is felt most in dense populations; for ***example infectious disease or competition for food density-independent limiting factor – factor that limits growth in populations regardless of their density; for ***example a natural disaster or harsh weather logistic model of population growth – model for growth of a population limited by density dependent factors; numbers increase exponentially at first, then the growth rate slows and population size levels off at carrying capacity Per capita growth rate – the number of individuals added during some interval divided by the initial population size 4 - Population growth generally follows certain patterns - When a population grows exponentially, it increases in size by ever larger amounts per unit of time - However all populations face limits to growth, because no environment can indefinitely sustain a continuously increasing number of individuals (organisms run out of food, space, mates or some other limiting factors) - Certain ecological principles govern the growth and sustainability of populations over time, i
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit