Biology 1290B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Louis Pasteur, Edward Jenner, Miasma Theory

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19 Jul 2017
Chapter 1: Miroiology Then and Now
- Pasteur series of eperiet was to test the hpothesis that life ol rises fro other
o Experiment 1A and 1B sterilized animal broths in glass flasks by heating it
1A -> sealed the glass neck -> Organisms did not form after T
1B-> did not sealed the neck -> Organisms were formed after T
o Experiment 2A and 2B sterilized meat broth in swan necked flasks (S-shaped)
2A -> S-shaped -> did not have organisms growing until the neck was
snapped off
2B -> when it was snapped off, organisms appeared
- Miasma: poisonous air
- Vaiolatio: loig a goud sallpo pode ito the idiidual’s ose
o The Chinese people did this in the 14th century
- Edward Jenner believed that people who had cowpox were prevented from deadly
- Created vaccination (vacca= cow)
- Synthetic biology euild o eate e life fos fo sath  eoiig
molecules take from different species
- Autopsy -> a postodet eaiatio to fid out hat’s the ause of the death
- Diseases are linked to sanitation, miasma,
1.3 The Classical Golden Age of Microbiology Reveals the Germ:
- After WW1 -> the Golden Age of microbiology
- Fermentation -> the process of splitting sugar molecules into smaller products like
alcohol, acid, and gas (CO2)
o People used to think that it was just a chemical reaction with the air but Louis
Pasteur used microscope observations that showed that there was a large
number of tiny yeast cells
o Even without air, they were still able to grow
o Thought yeast cells must be the cause of fermentation
o Pasteurization a heatig tehiue that kills the ateiu ut does’t ha
the quality of the wine
Created the germ theory of disease (germs are the organisms in the air)
and that they are the cause of infectious disease
Thought that we can control them by not allowing them to spread
- Joseph Lister:
o Ke aout pasteu’s theo ad also lead to the patie of atisepsis
Antisepsis: the use of chemical methods for disinfection of external living
surfaces such as the skin
- Robert Koch:
o Koh’s Postulates – prepared a pure culture containing of one bacterial type
o Isolated bacteria from dead organism that died from a disease
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