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Lecture 2: Descriptive Statistics

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Biology 2244A/B
Ben Rubin

2 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICSdataare observations such as measurements genders survey responses that have been collectedstatistics 0 is a collection of methods for planning experiments obtaining data and then organizing summarizing analyzing interpreting presenting and drawing conclusions based on the datapopulationthe complete collection of all elements scores people measurements etc to be studied The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studiedcensusthe collection of data from every member of the populationsampleis a sub collection of members selected from parts of a population12 Types of Data population parametera measurement describing some characteristics of a statistica measure describing some characteristic of a sampleQuantitative dataon axis numbers y Consist of numbers representing counts or measurements Ratio0 is meaningful differences and ratios meaningful Interval0 is arbitrary like ordinal but differences between values meaningful Discretefinite or countable numbers Continuousinfinite precision or categorical or attribute non numerical Qualitative datay Can be separated into different categories that are distinguished by some nonnumerical characteristic Ordinalordered differences between data values are meaningless Nominalunordered eg Names labels categoriesImportant Characteristics of Data 1 Centera representative or average value that indicates where the middle of the data set is located 2 Variationa measure of the amount that the data values vary among themselves 3 Distributionthe nature or shape of the distribution of the data such as bellshaped uniform skewed 4 Outlierssample values that lie very far away from the vast majority of the other sample values 5 Timechanging characteristics of the data over timeCVDOT Computer Viruses Destroy Or Terminate
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