Business Administration 2295F/G Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Job Performance, Westjet

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Chapter 8 – Social Influence, Socialization, and Organizational Culture
Social Influence in Organizations
- People feel differently in groups than they would independently
Information Dependence – gives others the opportunity to influence our thoughts,
feelings and actions via the signals they send to us
Social Information Processing Theory – organizational members use information from
others to interpret events and develop expectations about appropriate and acceptable
attitudes and behaviours
- Use cues
- Motivated to compare to others
Effect Dependence – involves two complementary processes:
1. Group has an interest in how individual members think and act since it can affect
their goal attainment
2. Group members have a desire for approval
- Individuals are sensitive to rewards and punishments the group has at its disposal
- Dependent on the effects of behaviours
Compliance – simplest and most direct motive or conformity to group norms
- Individuals have a tendency to adapt to social norms established by others
- A member wishes to acquire rewards and avoid punishment
- Effect dependence
- Doesn’t subscribe to beliefs, values and attitudes that underlie the norm
Identification – motive for conformity is often revealed by an imitation process in which
established members serve as models for the behaviour of others
- If someone is similar to you, then you will be motivated to rely on them
Internalization – when individuals have truly accepted the beliefs, values and attitudes
that underlies the norms
- Conformity occurs because it is seen as right, NOT because of rewards or
- Conformity is caused internally
Organizational Structure
Socialization – process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge and behaviours
that are necessary to function in a group or organization
- Learning process where new members acquire knowledge, change attitudes, and
perform new behaviours
- Communication of culture
-Role – learn appropriate behaviour
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-Work Group – learn norms and values
-Organization – history, traditions, language, politics, mission, culture
- Reduces role ambiguity and conflict
Person-Job Fit – match between an employees knowledge, skills, and abilities for the
Organizational Identification:
1. Social Methods: realistic job previews, employee programs, mentoring
2. Proximal Socialization Outcomes: learning, task mastery, social integration, role
conflict, role ambiguity, person-job fit (PJ), person-organization fit (PO)
3. Distal Socialization Outcomes: job satisfaction, organizational commitment,
organizational identification, organizational citizenship behaviour, job
performance, stress, turnover
Stages of Socialization:
1. Anticipatory Socialization:
- Before a person becomes a member of an organization
- Formal process of skills and attitude acquisition
oCollege or university
- Informal
oParenting, peers
2. Encounter:
- Formal
oOrientation programs, rotation
- Informal
oGetting to know/understand people and organization
- Conformity
- Personal needs and expectations fulfilled
3. Role Management:
- Modify the role
- Fine-tuning and actively managing role
Unrealistic Expectations and Psychological Contract
Unrealistic Expectations:
- Unrealistically high
- “Reality shock”
- Newcomers who have higher met expectations have higher job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, job performance, and job survival
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