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Business Administration
Business Administration 2295F/G

Chapter #2 Organizational behavior Personality and learning - What is personality  Personality • The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment o Personality and organizational behavior  Dispositional approach • Individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviors • Focuses on individual dispositions and personality. • Possessing stable traits,.. people are predisposed to acting in certain ways.  Situational approach • Characteristics of the organizational setting influences peoples attitudes and behaviors o Rewards and punishment influence people behavior  Interactionist approach • Individuals attitudes and behavior are a function of both disposition and situation. • Personality has the most impact in weak situations (situations which not a standard or norm is widely accepted)  Trait activation theory • Traits lead to certain behaviors only when the situation makes the need for the trait salient • Personality characteristics influence peoples behavior when the situation calls for a particular personality characteristic. o Five factor model of personality • Extraversion o Outgoing, sociable energetic joyful and assertive. • Emotional stability/neuroticism o People with high emotional stability are confident and high self esteem (low neuroticism) o High emotional control (high neuroticism) show self doubt and depression. o Anxious, hostile, impulsive insecure. • Agreeableness. o Friendly approachable, warm considerat, altruistic, friendly, sympathetic. Most likely to contribute to job performance which rewuires interaction and involvement. • Conscientiousness o Responsible achievement oriented, disciplined, hard working. o Perform well on jobs that require hard work and achievement • Openness to experience o Flexible. Open to creativity, and innovation. Intellectual curious  Research evidence • These big five are related to job performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. o Locus of control  Aset of beliefs about whether ones behavior is controlled mainly by internal or external forces. • Internals – believe what they do has strong connection to outcome • Externals- they are doomed nothing will change this.  o Self monitoring  The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships • High self monitors are very away of what they are doing and such • Low self monitors act on emotion- wear their heart on their sleeve  High self monitors perform well in occupations that call for flexibility and adaptiveness in dealings with diverse constituencies. • Experience more role stress • More involved in jobs, perform higher levels. And emerge as leaders. o Self esteem  The degree to which a person has a positive self evaluation  People of low self esteem often doubt their opinions attitudes and behaviors.  Behavioral plasticity • People low self esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self esteem  Low self esteem employees react poorly to criticism. - New developments in personality and organizational behavior o Positive and negative affectivity  Positive affectivity • Propensity to view the world including oneself and other people in a positive light  Negative affectivity • Propensity to view the world including oneself and others in a negative light. • Fear anxiety, depression.more stress at work. • Injury o Proactive personality  Proactive behavior • Taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones o Challenging status quo.  Proactive personality • Astable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in ones environment o Show initiative, take action. o Related to job satisfaction, performance, tolerance for work team and entrepreneurship. o Have high quality relationships with supervisors o General self efficacy  Ageneral trait that refers to an individuals belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations  Said to be a motivational trait rather than affective because it reflects an idividuals belief that he or she can succeed at a variety of tasks rather than how an individual feels about themselves.  If you have experience many successes in your life you generally would have a high GSE • Better able to adapt to advers situations o Core self evaluations  Abroad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self worth. • About worthiness, competence, and capability. • Research found these traits are among the best dispositional predictors of job satisfaction and job performance. • Are constant over time - What is learning  Arelatively permanent change in behavior potential that occurs due to practice or experience o What do employees learn  The what aspect of learning can be described as learning content of which there are four primary categories • Practical skills o Job specific skills • Intra Personal skills o Problem solving, critical skils, risk taking, alternative processes • Interpersonal skills o Interactive skills • Cultural skills o Social norms of organizations and understanding goals , business operations and company expectations and priorities o Operant learning theory  Learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequesnces • B.F. Skinner – Rats would be able to learn how to pull the lever for the food pellets. • Operant learned behavior is controlled by the consequences following the behavior - Increasing the probability of Behavior o Reinforcement  The process by which stimuli strengthens behaviors o Positive reinforcement  The application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of some behavior o Negative reinforcement  The removal of a stimulus that in turn increases or maintains
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