Chapter #2 Organizational behavior
Personality and learning
- What is personality
• The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way
an individual interacts with his or her environment
o Personality and organizational behavior
• Individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes
• Focuses on individual dispositions and personality.
• Possessing stable traits,.. people are predisposed to acting in certain ways.
• Characteristics of the organizational setting influences peoples attitudes and
o Rewards and punishment influence people behavior
• Individuals attitudes and behavior are a function of both disposition and
• Personality has the most impact in weak situations (situations which not a
standard or norm is widely accepted)
Trait activation theory
• Traits lead to certain behaviors only when the situation makes the need for the
• Personality characteristics influence peoples behavior when the situation calls
for a particular personality characteristic.
o Five factor model of personality
o Outgoing, sociable energetic joyful and assertive.
• Emotional stability/neuroticism
o People with high emotional stability are confident and high self esteem
o High emotional control (high neuroticism) show self doubt and
o Anxious, hostile, impulsive insecure.
o Friendly approachable, warm considerat, altruistic, friendly,
sympathetic. Most likely to contribute to job performance which
rewuires interaction and involvement.
o Responsible achievement oriented, disciplined, hard working.
o Perform well on jobs that require hard work and achievement
• Openness to experience
o Flexible. Open to creativity, and innovation. Intellectual curious
• These big five are related to job performance and organizational citizenship
o Locus of control
Aset of beliefs about whether ones behavior is controlled mainly by internal or external
• Internals – believe what they do has strong connection to outcome • Externals- they are doomed nothing will change this.
o Self monitoring
The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social
settings and relationships
• High self monitors are very away of what they are doing and such
• Low self monitors act on emotion- wear their heart on their sleeve
High self monitors perform well in occupations that call for flexibility and adaptiveness
in dealings with diverse constituencies.
• Experience more role stress
• More involved in jobs, perform higher levels. And emerge as leaders.
o Self esteem
The degree to which a person has a positive self evaluation
People of low self esteem often doubt their opinions attitudes and behaviors.
• People low self esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social
influences than those who have high self esteem
Low self esteem employees react poorly to criticism.
- New developments in personality and organizational behavior
o Positive and negative affectivity
• Propensity to view the world including oneself and other people in a positive
• Propensity to view the world including oneself and others in a negative light.
• Fear anxiety, depression.more stress at work.
o Proactive personality
• Taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones
o Challenging status quo.
• Astable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative
across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in ones
o Show initiative, take action.
o Related to job satisfaction, performance, tolerance for work team and
o Have high quality relationships with supervisors
o General self efficacy
Ageneral trait that refers to an individuals belief in his or her ability to perform
successfully in a variety of challenging situations
Said to be a motivational trait rather than affective because it reflects an idividuals belief
that he or she can succeed at a variety of tasks rather than how an individual feels about
If you have experience many successes in your life you generally would have a high GSE
• Better able to adapt to advers situations
o Core self evaluations
Abroad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the
evaluations people hold about themselves and their self worth.
• About worthiness, competence, and capability. • Research found these traits are among the best dispositional predictors of job
satisfaction and job performance.
• Are constant over time
- What is learning
Arelatively permanent change in behavior potential that occurs due to practice or
o What do employees learn
The what aspect of learning can be described as learning content of which there are four
• Practical skills
o Job specific skills
• Intra Personal skills
o Problem solving, critical skils, risk taking, alternative processes
• Interpersonal skills
o Interactive skills
• Cultural skills
o Social norms of organizations and understanding goals , business
operations and company expectations and priorities
o Operant learning theory
Learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain
• B.F. Skinner – Rats would be able to learn how to pull the lever for the food
• Operant learned behavior is controlled by the consequences following the
- Increasing the probability of Behavior
The process by which stimuli strengthens behaviors
o Positive reinforcement
The application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of
o Negative reinforcement
The removal of a stimulus that in turn increases or maintains