Chapter #1 Organizational behavior.docx

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Business Administration
Course Code
Business Administration 2295F/G

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Chapter #1 MOS 2181 - What are organizations o Social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort. o Social inventions  Meaning organizations essential characteristic is the coordinated presence of people o Goal accomplishment  Virtually all organizations have a survival goal. Organizational behavior is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change  Certain behaviors are necessary for survival/adaptation • Motivation, and loyalty to organization • Reliable, quality, service • Continuously learn • Flexible, innovative o Group effort  Organizations depend on the interaction and coordination among people to accomplish their goals. - What is organizational behavior? o OB- refers to the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations.  How can organizations be structured more efficiently. o Human resources management  Programs, practices, and systems to acquire, develop and retain employees in organizations.  Using organizational behavior perspective we ask these questions • How do employees learn, training? • How should organizations manage a divers workforce • How to motivate employees • What is a cross functional team and how is such designed • What is organizational cultre - Why study Organizational Behavior o OB is interesting  About people and the human nature  Success and failure  What makes people behave the way they do. o OB is important  Organizational behavior is important to managers, employees, and consumers. o OB makes a difference  Today companies can no longer be successful just based on innovation, technology, and economies of scale. However the main factor that differentiates organizations is their work force and human capital. - Goals of Organizational behavior o Predicting OB  In organizations, there is considerable interest in predicting when people with make ethical decisions, create innovative products, or engage in sexual harassment.  The regularity of behavior in organizations permits the prediction of its future occurrence.  Helps us to create effective strategies to manage such behaviors o Explaining organizational behavior  In general accurate prediction preceeds explanation.  Why are people more or less motivated, satisfied, or prone to resign.  Explanation is complicated by changing underlying causes of specific events of behavior. o Managing OB  Defined as the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others.  If behavior can be predicted, and explained, it can often be managed  Often we see situations in which managers act without analysis, looking for the quick fix.  Evidence based management • Translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organizational practices. o Make decisions based on the best available scientific evidence from research. - Early prescriptions concerning management. o The classic view and Bureaucracy  The classic view • An early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labour, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making. • Each department was to tend to its own affairs. • Centralized decision making from upper management.  Scientific management • Fredric taylor, father of Scientific management o Using research to determining the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks.  Bureaucracy • Max webers ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based technical competence. • Seen as ideal type, and would standardize behavior in organizations. o The human relations movement and a critique or Berauecracy  Hawthorn studies • Research conducted at the hawthorn plant of western electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 30s, that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment. • After the second world war man academics began a shift towards ….  Human relations movement • Acritique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocates management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs. • Critique of Burauecracy o Strict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth. o Relying on strong central authority, squashes the innovation of employees in lower level positions. o Strict impersonal rules lead members to adopt the minimum acceptable level performance that the rules specify. o Heavy specialization causes employess to lose sight of the overall goals. - Contemporary management – The Contingency approach. o Different types of jobs and departments require different management strategies.  For example, payroll department can be successful running on a more bureaucratic style, because the job is routine and calls for no margin of error, where as other departments require that freedom to act on their own decisions and knowledge. o
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