Chapter #1 MOS 2181
- What are organizations
o Social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort.
o Social inventions
Meaning organizations essential characteristic is the coordinated presence of people
o Goal accomplishment
Virtually all organizations have a survival goal. Organizational behavior is concerned
with how organizations can survive and adapt to change
Certain behaviors are necessary for survival/adaptation
• Motivation, and loyalty to organization
• Reliable, quality, service
• Continuously learn
• Flexible, innovative
o Group effort
Organizations depend on the interaction and coordination among people to accomplish
- What is organizational behavior?
o OB- refers to the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations.
How can organizations be structured more efficiently.
o Human resources management
Programs, practices, and systems to acquire, develop and retain employees in
Using organizational behavior perspective we ask these questions
• How do employees learn, training?
• How should organizations manage a divers workforce
• How to motivate employees
• What is a cross functional team and how is such designed
• What is organizational cultre
- Why study Organizational Behavior
o OB is interesting
About people and the human nature
Success and failure
What makes people behave the way they do.
o OB is important
Organizational behavior is important to managers, employees, and consumers.
o OB makes a difference
Today companies can no longer be successful just based on innovation, technology, and
economies of scale. However the main factor that differentiates organizations is their
work force and human capital.
- Goals of Organizational behavior
o Predicting OB
In organizations, there is considerable interest in predicting when people with make
ethical decisions, create innovative products, or engage in sexual harassment.
The regularity of behavior in organizations permits the prediction of its future
Helps us to create effective strategies to manage such behaviors
o Explaining organizational behavior
In general accurate prediction preceeds explanation.
Why are people more or less motivated, satisfied, or prone to resign.
Explanation is complicated by changing underlying causes of specific events of behavior.
o Managing OB Defined as the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others.
If behavior can be predicted, and explained, it can often be managed
Often we see situations in which managers act without analysis, looking for the quick fix.
Evidence based management
• Translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organizational
o Make decisions based on the best available scientific evidence from
- Early prescriptions concerning management.
o The classic view and Bureaucracy
The classic view
• An early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of
labour, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making.
• Each department was to tend to its own affairs.
• Centralized decision making from upper management.
• Fredric taylor, father of Scientific management
o Using research to determining the optimum degree of specialization
and standardization of work tasks.
• Max webers ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command,
detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and
promotion based technical competence.
• Seen as ideal type, and would standardize behavior in organizations.
o The human relations movement and a critique or Berauecracy
• Research conducted at the hawthorn plant of western electric near Chicago in
the 1920s and 30s, that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect
productivity and work adjustment.
• After the second world war man academics began a shift towards ….
Human relations movement
• Acritique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocates management
styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs.
• Critique of Burauecracy
o Strict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth.
o Relying on strong central authority, squashes the innovation of
employees in lower level positions.
o Strict impersonal rules lead members to adopt the minimum acceptable
level performance that the rules specify.
o Heavy specialization causes employess to lose sight of the overall
- Contemporary management – The Contingency approach.
o Different types of jobs and departments require different management strategies.
For example, payroll department can be successful running on a more bureaucratic style,
because the job is routine and calls for no margin of error, where as other departments
require that freedom to act on their own decisions and knowledge.