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Chapter 2

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Western University
Chemistry 1027A/B
Felix Lee

Chapter 2: Structure and Bonding Topic 2.1: Ionic and Covalent Bonding 2.1.2 Valence Electrons and Symbols -only valance electrons participate in bonding -when drawing chemical structures it is only necessary to draw the valence electrons -once a bond is created, any “memory” of where the electrons originated is lost -electronegativity values often determine the types of bonds formed: -Elements of low electronegativity typically form ionic bonds -Elements of moderate electronegativity typically form covalent bonds -Elements of higher electronegativity can form covalent or ionic bonds 2.1.3 What is Ionic Bonding? -a bond is classified as ionic when the electronegativity difference is greater than 1.9 -ionic bond: assumed there is a complete transfer of an electron from the atom of lower electronegativity to the atom with the higher electronegativity. -transfer results in the formation of two ions that have electronic configurations corresponding to noble gases Crystal Lattices -the attractive Coulombic forces between the anions and cations result in the formation of crystal lattices -in a crystal lattice, a single cation is attracted too several anions and vice versa -attractive forces in a crystal lattice are exceptionally strong and account for the very high melting points of ionic compounds -the magnitude of the attractive force between anions and cations is determined by Coulomb’s Law 2.1.4 What is Covalent Bonding? -covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons (sharing may or may not be equal) -sharing deemed unequal if 0.5
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