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CHEM2213 Topic 0: Structure & Bonding Notes.docx

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Chemistry 1027A/B
Mark Workentin

Topic 0 Structure & Bonding  Organic Chemistry: study of the compounds of C Electronic Structure Of Atoms  An atom consists of a small, dense nucleus and electrons concentrated about the nucleus in regions of space called shells 2  Each shell can contain as many as 2n electrons, where n is the number of the shell, the shell is subdivided into regions of space called orbitals o First shell (n=1) has a single s orbital and can hold 2 x 1 = 2 e - o Second shell (n=2) has one s orbital and 3 p orbitals and can hold 2 x 2 = 2 - 8 e  Lewis structure of an element shows symbol of the element surrounded by a number of dots equal to the number of e in its valence shell Lewis Model Of Bonding  Atoms bond together in such a way that each atom participating in a chemical bond acquires a completed valence shell e configuration resembling that of the noble gas nearest it in atomic number - o Atoms that lose sufficient e to acq-ire a completed valence shell become cations and atoms that gain e are anions  Ionic Bond: chemical bond formed by attractive force between anion and cation  Covalent Bond: chemical bond formed by sharing of e pairs between atoms -  Tendency of main group elements to achieve an outer shell of 8 valence e (octet rule)  Electronegativity: measure of the forces of attraction by an atom for e it shares in a chemical bond with another  Lewis stru-ture must show corre-t arrangement of atoms, correct number of - valence e , no more than 2 e in the outer shell of H, no more than 8 e in the outer shell of any second period element, and all formal charges o Formal Charge: charge on an atom in a molecule / polyatomic ion Bond Angles & Molecule Shapes  VSPER predicts bond angles of 109.5° about atoms surrounded by 4 regions of electron density, 120° for 3 regions and 180° for 2 regions o Common shapes for small molecules include tetrahedral, pyramidal, linear, and bent Polarity  Non polar covalent bond is a covalent bond in which differen
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