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CHEM2213 Topic 2a: Organic Structure #1: Alkanes & Cycloalkanes Notes.docx

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Chemistry 1027A/B
Mark Workentin

Topic 2a Organic Structure #1: Alkanes & Cycloalkanes  Hydrocarbon: compound that contains only carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms What Are Alkanes?  Alkanes: saturated hydrocarbon whose carbon atoms are arranged in an open chain o Contain only carbon-carbon single bonds, maximum number of hydrogens bonded to it o Four bonds of each carbon atom are still arranged in a tetrahedral manner and all bond angles are approximately 109.5°  Line-Angle Formula: abbreviated way to draw structural formulas in which each vertex and each line ending represents a C atom and a line represents a bond  General formula – C n 2n+2(end in –ane) What Is Constitutional Isomerism in Alkanes?  Constitutional Isomers: compounds with the same molecular formula but a different order of attachment of their atoms o These compounds differ in the kind of bonds they have or in their connectivity o Different compounds, different physical & chemical properties o All compounds that have same molecular formula but different structural formula  Ability of C atoms to form strong, stable bonds with other C atoms results in staggering number of constitutional isomers How Do We Name Alkanes?  Alkyl Group: group derived by removing a hydrogen from an alkane (R-)  C atom is classified as 1°, 2°, 3°, or 4° depending of the number of C atoms bonded to it  H atom is classified as 1°, 2°, 3° depending on the type of C to which it is bonded What Are Cycloalkanes?  Hydrocarbon that contains C atoms joined to form a ring is called a cyclic hydrocarbon  Cycloalkane: saturated hydrocarbon that contains C atoms joined to form a ring  Contain two fewer H atoms than alkane with the same number of C atoms  Five-membered rings and six-membered rings are especially abundant in biological world What Is The IUPAC System of Nomenclature?  The name we give to any compound with a chain of C atoms consists of the three parts: prefix, infix (modifying element inserted into a word), and a suffix What Are The Conformations of Alkanes And Cycloalkanes?  Alkanes with two or more C can be twisted into a number of different 3D arrangements of their atoms by rotating about
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