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CHEM2213 Topic 2b: Organic Structure #2: Alkenes & Alkynes Notes.docx

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Chemistry 1027A/B
Mark Workentin

Topic 2b Organic Structure #2: Alkenes & Alkynes  Unsaturated hydrocarbon has fewer H’s bonded to C than an alkane has  Alkene: unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains a C-C double bond  Alkyne: unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains a C-C triple bond  Arenes: compound containing one or more benzene rings What Are The Structures & Shapes Of Alkenes & Alkynes?  For bond angles about each C in a double bond, 120° is predicted  General formula of C n 2n  C-C double bond consists of 1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond  Each C of the double bond uses its 3 sp hybrid orbitals to form sigma bonds to 3 atoms  Unhybridized 2p atomic orbitals2which lie perpendicular to the plane created by the axes of the 3 sp orbits combine to form the pi bond of the C-C double bond  Rotation about a C-C double bond is severely restricted  An alkene in which each C of the double bond has two different groups bonded to it shows cis-trans isomerism o Cannot be converted into one another because of restricted rotation, different compounds with different properties  Cis alkenes are less stable than their trans isomers because of nonbonded interaction strain between alkyl substituents on the same side of the double bond  Functional group of an alkyne is C-C
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