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Chapter 2.1

Chem 1100 Chapter 2.1 Review Notes.docx

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Chemistry 1027A/B
Felix Lee

2.1: Chemistry Review Crystal Lattices – attractive Coulombic forces between the two ions in an ionic bond result in the formation of these very strong structures, which result in high melting and boiling points of compounds Coloumb’s Law: Force = k Q 1 /2 2 K = Coloumb’s constant r = distance between ions Q1and Q =2the value of charges on ions Smaller ions = smaller distances = larger forces = higher melting points Example: Rank NaCl, KBr, RbBr, CsI from highest to lowest melting point. NaCl > KBr > RbBr > CsI Dipole Movement – when the electronegativity between elements is higher, the magnitude of the dipole movement is larger and they orient themselves in an electric field It is shown by a vector pointing from S- to S+. If there are not any partial charges, there is no dipole movement. S+ S- Example: H – Cl Formal Charges – the entire charge on an atom Steps to find the formal charge: 1. Count the number of non-bonding electrons 2. Count one electron for every bond and two electrons for every double bond 3. The sum of step 1 and 2 constitutes the total electrons that belong 4. The difference between belonging atom electrons and the atoms valence electrons is the charge 5. Sum of the formal charges of all atoms in a molecules equals the overall charge of a molecule Example: 6+4+4+6 = 20 non-bonding electrons 2+2+1+1 = bonding electrons 20+6 = 26 belonging electrons 26-24 = 2 extra electrons Therefore the formal charge is -2. Octet Rule – when main group elements in their most stable form (lowest energy) have a filled valence shell of eight electrons, they have the noble gas configuration ns np 2 6 - Most applicable to second row elements (C, O, N, F) - Doesn’t strictly apply to third or higher row elements because of the d and f orbitals Steps to Draw Lewis Structures: 1. Count the total number of valence electrons in the molecule by adding up the valence electrons from each atom and adding one electron for each negative charge and subtractin
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