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Chapter 1.3

Chem 1200 Chapter 1.3 Review Notes.docx

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Western University
Chemistry 1027A/B
Felix Lee

1.3: Weak Acids and Bases  A unidirectional arrow () indicates that the reactions proceed completely to the product side  Strong acids and bases completely ionize in solution  Weak acids and bases do not ionize completely in solution, but they proceed until they reach an equilibrium between the reactants and products  Arrhenius Theory of acids and bases: + + o An acid produces H O3ions in water (H for simplicity) o A base produces OH ions in water  Bronsted-Lowry Theory of acid-base behaviour: o An acid is a proton donor o A base is a proton acceptor  The Equilibrium Constant is K bor weak bases and K foa weak acids  Lewis Acid: a substance that can accept a pair of electrons from another atom o This will result in the formation of a coordinate covalent bond (where both electrons shared in the bond come from the same atom)  Lewis Base: a substance that can donate a pair of electrons to another atom o The species formed in this reaction is called an acid-base adduct  Ammonia and amines can behave as Lewis bases (Ex: NH and NH ) + 3 4  Metal cations can behave as Lewis acids and form complex ions known as coordination 2+ complexes (Ex: Cu )  Oxides of non-metals can behave as Lewis acids when they react with a hydroxide (Ex: CO ) 2  The larger the K value, the greater the ionization  Equations using logarithmic and K values:  pK aecomes smaller as the strength of the acid (K )aincreases  Equation for Percent Ionization: the percentage of the acid that ionizes in solution (c = initial concentration of acid) (x = amount of acid that ionizes)  If % Ionization is below 5%, or if caK is greater than 400, we assume that x is much smaller than c, so x = 0 and thus: and  Solving for x using the b expression follows the same steps as the K axpression, except [OH] is + determined rather than [H ], so we need to use the pOH  The more dilute the solution of a weak acid or base, the greater the percent ionization  The conjugate base of the weak acid has one less hydrogen atom than the weak acid and is also more negatively charged than the weak acid o The conjugate base will behave like a weak base when in solution  The conjugate acid has one more hydrogen than the weak base and is more positively charged than the base o The conjugate acid will behave like a weak acid in solution  Equation involving the ion product
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