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Chapter 4

Chemistry 1301A/B Chapter 4: 4.3- Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, Alkenes

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Chemistry 1301A/B
Felix Lee

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November 18, 2016 Chapter 4: Structure and Shape of Organic Molecules 4.3 Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, and Alkenes Alkanes : Acyclic compounds with formula C H . Homologous series differing by one CH unit. n 2n+2 2 The lightest alkanes are gases at 25c while the mediumlength alkane chains exist as liquids at the same temperature because we have greater intermolecular forces as we go from a smaller alkane to a bigger alkane. These forces would be dispersion forces because alkanes are nonpolar. Constitutional Isomers: Molecular formula alone may not indicate structure; it tells you the composition. These isomers have different physical and chemical properties Contribute to molecular diversity in nature The more atoms there are, the more possible constitutional isomers Drawing constitutional isomers Start with the longest carbon chain and gradually shorten the chain Focus on different bonding sequences Drawing 3D structures Newman projections: the molecule is viewed along the CC axis; bonds are drawn in front of and along the edge of the circle. This convention is usually used for showing conformations. Conformations: Shortlived spatial arrangements caused by bond rotations (Single bonds only). There are 2 key conformations for alkanes: eclipsed and staggered. In eclipsed, all CH bonds are aligned, and in staggered, the CH bonds in front bisect the HCH bond angles in the back
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