• Always depicted as young man.
• Lived to be quite old. Was at edge of death at various points in life due to bad
health but lived to about 76 years old.
• He hasn’t yet been given the honorary title of augustus. Going to call him
Octavian for now.
• He has 300 000 men. He is rich bc while he is in Egypt he decides to conquer it.
Absorbs Egypt into the Roman Empire. They end the Hellenistic era when oct
conquers Egypt. Now there is now part of alex’s conquest that hasn’t been taken
over by the romans. Cleo was descendant of Greeks. All kingdoms absorbed by
• He is rich, is son of Julius ceasar. Has complete power.
• There is power but no legitimacy in rome.
• 31 now the controller of rome. Enters rome and says he wants to restore the
republic. The system in which rome is a public thing everyone takes part. For so
long rome had been governed by a group of powerful men or one.
• He begins to spread coins of own minting. Brags be captured Egypt.
• Says he will restore the republic
• Beginning in the year 27 he embarks on what we now call a series of augustin
settlements. Was given this name by rome in acknowledgement of what he does.
He is 35 years old. He bragged in biography. He says – I excelled everything in
influence, but I had no more power (emperium constitutional term in rome if
you have it, you have the power to tell other ppl to do something). Than any
other. In rome, only two ppl had emperium the consuls. He is saying he didn’t
have any more emperium than anything, its just that he had lots of influence.
Emphasized bc it was part of his presentation of himself. Made it clear that he was
not a dictator. No illegal powers. He is important bc influential. But no illegal
• He stops being dictators (was one with marc). He came to rome and says he will
now become a citizen like anyone else.
• Says he would like to be a tribune. Someone who looks out for other ppl. Wants to
be this every year. A bit unusual. But nothing like what cesar and sula had done
(wanted to be dictator for life).
• He then saus he doesn’t want to run for consul. The roman ppl demand he runs for
• Then he says he refused to be consul. Romans refused to elect anyone else unless
he was consul. He had become very popular.
• He is given a title it isn’t king, or the second Romulus. He is given two honorific
titles. The first is princeps means the one who gets to chose first. Was honor
given to someone. The one who gets to vote first. Became THE princeps. Became
such a dominant image, that even after he died, ppl used his name to distinguish
themselves (prince). • The other name he has was augustus means he who is influential. Not power or
dominant. He who makes things happen. If you want something done, go and see
him. He choses this name.
• He says next that he wants a province. Everyone who has been a consul gets to
have one. His province however is all of the green area of roman empire. Its
immense. Practically half. Not only is it half, but the half that sees the most
battles. Had three quarters of the army.
• He could say that just like any roman statesman, he gets province.
• It’s a way of holding onto power and shielding from view the fact you have raw
• Was he the puppet master controlling everything from behind the scenes or was he
publically influential. Is he like bill gates or like a sadam husean who has absolute
control and hides it well. Ongoing debate.
• He claims he is citizen like anyone else. Not a king or dictator.
• After awhile, the writings about him were so full of praise. Seemed to be able to
• Was the greatest conqueror in roman history. Under his leadership, he conquered
more land than anyone including Julius.
• Moreover, his con