The Greeks notes.docx

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
David Lamari

The Greeks The Gymnasium - Boys have been called to practice from an early age - Gymnos naked (naked exercise customary) - Early on gymnasium was an open place with facilities for changing, then adjacent buildings where teaching took place - Children, along with learning music and poetry, were sent to a trainer to build physical strength and good bodies (so not to be a coward in war) - In Athens, youth between 18 and 20 had to undergo military training ( 1 year in barracks in the nd Piraeus and 2 year as apprentice hoplites in the colonies) - In Sparta naked excercises were institutionalized in a festival (Gynmnopaediae) attended by the king endurance of bodily pain, rigour, discipline, whippings - In Athens gym also a place of relaxation - Cloister colonnades that gave shade from the sun in the summer heat ... Socrates talks about how he meets Euthydemus in the undressing room of a gymnasium - Gymnasia were municipally owned - Palaestra wrestling floor privately owned o After military service, Socrates drops in on his old haunts for conversation at a palaestra o Palaestra setting for ceremonies a place for contemplation and celebration of the body beautiful - Socrates catches sight of a beautiful youth and enquires about him -?? 93 Games - Primary purpose of physical training was military but also promoted athletic talent for competitive games - Established in Greece in the classical times, most famous being the Olympian, Pythian, Nemean and Isthmian - Olympic games first instituted by Heracles dedicated to zeus and thankgiving for victorties - Time measured in 4 year Olympic cycle by naming victor - First 776 BC foot race - Hieromenia holy time of the month armistice throughout Greece - Games were part of a religious occasion could be said games were a religion o Well regulated Eleans appointed judges and administered the competitions - Olympic law very important Spartans refused entry for not paying a fine Spartans sent hoplites of theirs and made an attack at a time of Olympic truce and had to pay a fine Spartans protested saying they made attack before the truce o Although Spartans did not back down or pay fine, did not intervene by force which they could have (restrained by respect of Olympic law) - All Greeks eligible to compete only men allowed to watch o Separate womens games in honour of Hera - Victors hoped for a statue or poetic phrase about them o Very honorary to win the games as seen by the boasting scripture in textbook Literature Introduction Aristotle the instinct for imitation is natural to us as is also a feeling for music and for rhythm - For epic, Homer used diactylic hexameter o Composed of 6 units or feet o Each unit may be a dactyl made up of a long syllable followed by two short syllables or by a spondee made up to two long syllables - Greek metre not determined by a pattern of stressed or unstressed syllables - After homer, other kinds formed such as the elegiac couplet (hexameter followed by a pentameter) used for epitaphs, inscriptions and epigrams - See textbook pg. 103 - Iambic metre for spoken parts of drama first used for occasional poems o Pattern allows for syllables to be either short or long o Makes metre very flexible - Archilochus earliest post-homer surviving poetry used both - Early lyric poetry performed usually at a symposium or drinking party had two branches o Aeoian from northern Asia minor monadic (composed for one voice) and monostrophic (written in stanzas that repeat the same metrical form) Two main reps: Sappho (much poetry dedicated to Aphrodite and muses) and Alcaeus (gods, war and political poems, love poems and drinking songs) names given to favoured metrical forms o The dorian choral lyrics involved dancing triadic structure involving strophe, antistrophe and epode Many kinds: hymeneal, the hymn, the dithyramb in honor of Dionysus . threnody and encomium Pindar heroic odes - celebrate aristocratic values Philosophy The Presocratics - Philosophy love of wisdom - First thinkers consciously to reject world handed down from traditional myths Ionia in the 7 th th and 6 centuries - Movement of myth to philosophy made easier by nature of myths (Zeus is not omnipotent or omniscent) - Little remains of presocratics besides quotations from later authors - Earliest Ionian thinker: Thales of Miletuso Believed primary substance from which everything came into being and of which all is ultimately is made is water - Their common enquiry was into nature of the physical universe on the assumption that it is both one and intelligible - Pythagoras against materialism of early Ionians o Doctrine of souls immortality and its reincarnation in a cycle of lives in the animal and human spheres o Body is the prison or tomb of the soul purified in an ascetic life of study o Talked about universe in metaphysical terms advancements in math and music o Word kosmos good order/decency perfect order or universe - Heraclitus of Ephesus fire primordial substance o World is n everlasting fire which is partly flaring up and partly dying down in equal measure constant balance in which tension and strife is essential o Primordial element Logos universal reason principle that there is unity in diversity and diversity in unity - identified with what is eternal and constant while phenomenal world constantly changing - Parmenides Being, the One, is real; Becoming, change is illusion o Being is the only true object of knowledge and is known through reason and th
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