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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 3400E
Cody Barteet

Overview of course content September 9 , 2013 th Archaeological context helps us determine: o Where an object was originally used o Helps uncover the object’s bigger picture o Context plays into archaeological provenance o Once you know more about the an object and where it comes from, it helps you construct a better idea about it o Time and place are important in understanding Greek art Some Major focuses o Polis = city state  Athens was the urban center of Attica  Private & public sphere (focus is public sphere)  Acropolis of Athens was known for great architectural and historical significance, and was primarily dedicated to patron goddess Athena  Acropolis was a large sanctuary/temple buildings that would sit in the center and used for cult practice (Athena)  Sanctuary wall is called a ‘Temenos’  Patron goddess Athena was associated with Acropolis  A ‘vodive’ was a sacred offering (social function) which would occur in a temple/sanctuary (place)  Burial display was common with citizens, it showed the different social classes of the Greeks  A wealthy cemetery was called ‘kerameikos’  Wealth is shown by objects placed in tomb and can tell us about social class, beliefs, values, etc.  Burial was like a public show, citizen’s were being watched in regards to what objects were being placed in tombs and what was being offered o Agora = Greek marketplace  6 thcentury BCE center of commerce, heart of political power, where merchants would set up  gathering place for Greek citizens o How do we date Greek objects?  The most common archaeology finds are broken pots ‘pottery sherds’ which contain lots of information on them September 16 , 2013 th The Dark Ages (1050-900 BCE) o certain style of pottery that marks o important historical stylistic term called ‘Protogeometric pottery style’  first style that described the pattern being painted on fine pottery o 10 thcentury BCE (before common era)  1000 BCE-901 BCE o Geometric period  Basic pottery style  900-700 BCE Pottery Shapes (Burial Context) o pots used in burial practice would’ve been placed in tomb after (dual purpose) o standard burial practice before Dark Ages was called inhumation o stopped inhuming their dead except for children and instead burned bodies o standard Dark Ages practice was cremation o funerary pyre  body placed on pyre  body would be lit  remnants would be put in a special burial storage jar called an amphora o cist grave was a term used for a shallow grave  amphora jar was placed in shallow grave  in Dark Ages, only a single burial per grave, no family graves o neck handled amphora (Protogeometric)  handles up on shoulder (neck) neck handled amphora was used for male cremation burials o belly handled amphora (Protogeometric)  handles on belly and was used for female cremation o amphorae  oinochoe/ai – specialized pouring vessels found in tombs used for pouring wine  hydria/ai – stemmed water jug that always has three handles (third handle up on neck for pouring, and two for carrying on the side)  lekythos/oi – small pouring vessel with smaller neck, carried more valuable liquids like perfumed olive oil  skyphos/oi – single drinking wine cup, fairly large  krater/s – large punch bowl o can’t find any other objects in tombs during this period, metals were very rare, no carved ivory or precious gold objects Decorative Motifs o compass drawings which made drawing circles possible, most striking during this age  semicircles  full circles o zig-zags, waves and diamond shapes (lozenge) were also used o natural Attic clay is full of iron oxide which gives pottery a reddish colour Kerameikos Cemetery o high status and wealthy had a burial site here o many neck handled and belly handled Protogeometric amphora found  compass drawn circles on them  pots are beautifully made with good symmetry  designs emphasize the overall visual form of pot  ancient Greeks were aesthetically conscious o animal figure found that corresponds with a belly handled pot for female  usually no pictorial decoration in this era  only wealthy could afford horses  abstract horse figure painted on pot, therefore can be associated with wealth Early Geometric Period in Athens o 900-850 o (middle Geometric period: 850-760) o (late Geometric period: 760-700) o decorative motifs  ‘meander’ raised hook line pattern  ‘battlement raised box pattern  ‘chevron’ individual arrow pattern o neck-handled amphorae o shoulder-handled amphorae o oinochoai o hydriai o craters o lekythos o skyphoi Agora o single female cremation burial o shoulder handled amphora o Found
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