• The MM II 1900-1700 BCE acrobat (11" GR 214-55) displays Minoan mastery
of ivory, form, and movement— usually described as a bull-leaper, but could he
be a diver? Note elongated body.
• Figures at Olympia: (800-700 BCE). These may represent Zeus; note the raised
arms and prominent genitals.
• Early Greek painting: arms and torso are an isosceles triangle, or sometimes all
that can be seen is the shield (this geometric vase dates 730 BCE; from the
Athenian agora). As mentioned, at first en and women are naked. Later, Greek
men are naked while women are clothed.
The kouroi (600 -500 BCE) are also naked:— we don't know what the type was
called in antiquity. All kouroi (and the type is found even outside Attica) are young,
unbearded, and naked (public hair may have been painted on; traces have been found).
Kouroi stood in cemeteries as grave markers or in sanctuaries as votive offerings. Several
have features worth noting.
• The New York kouros (600 BCE, marble, 6') has the odd beaded hairstyle
found on so many kouroi and is wearing only a neckband. The large eyes
and stiff frontal pose are reminiscent of Daedalic sculpture. Note pose of
• Egyptian comparison (granite statue of a prince of Egyptian Thebes, early
6 C BCE).
• The Sunion kouros is another example of a much larger early kouros
statue (580 BCE marble 9' 10"). Note huge arms, stiff frontal pose, beaded
hair, large eyes, and forbidding expression.
• The Anavysos Kouros (named after findspot in Attica, 6' 4 1/2". marble,
530 BCE) is more natural-looking, more rounded and three-dimensional. 2
Note *archaic smile, but also note that even though the sculpture looks
more natural, posture and pose and hair are unaltered.
• The Aristodikos kouros (500 BCE, marble, 6' 5") is still more natural and
supple (note hairstyle change), and anatomy is not quite so patterned.
• Kritios boy is a kouros, and straddles the line between Archaic kouoi and
more natural sculptures in the 5th C BCE (3' 10" 480 BCE). Note how his
weight is on his left leg). The head is turned and the body curves a little.
Thick eyelids and composed expression; his hair ("Severe Style"). The
kouroi of the 6th C wore their hair in odd beaded plaits. He was a votive
offering, found on the Athenian acropolis. So-called because of features
similar to the Harmodius and Aristogeiton sculpture.
Harmodius (younger man) and Aristogiton (older man) survive as Roman
copies in marble (originally bronze: 477-476 BCE; 6’5”). A. lunges forward, holding a
cloak; H. holds and daggar aloft. The pair represent a moment in Athenian history: they
murdered one of a pair of tyrants in 514 BCE, prompted by a homosexual love triangle
(the tyrant Hipparchus was in love with Harmodius) and an insult offered to H.'s sister.
The largely personal deed of Hipparchus' murder by the pair was mythologized by the
Athenians into "a self-consciously political act of liberation" from tyranny. The statues
were the c