Computer Science 1026A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Hard Disk Drive, Microsoft Word, Auxiliary Memory

99 views2 pages
Computer Science Fundamentals I Lecture Notes - CS1026
Chapter 1
Comp Programs
- tells comp the sequence of steps needed to complete a specific task
o program consists of a very large number of primitive (simple) instructions
- Programming: Act of designing, implementing, and testing computer programs
Hardware & Software
- Hardware: Physical elements in a comp system (e.g. monitor, mouse, external storage,
- Central Processing Unit (CPU): performs program control & data processing
- Storage Devices: Memory (RAM) & secondary storage (hard disk, flash drives, CD/DVD
- Input/output devices allow user to interact w/ comp (mouse, keyboard, printer, screen…)
- Software: the programs the computer executes
o An application program (e.g. Microsoft Word, comp games, operating systems &
device drivers)
o Sequence of instructions implemented in some language & translated to a form
that can be executed or run on the comp
- Comps execute basic instructions in rapid successions
o Basic instructions can be grouped together to perform complex tasks
o Comp transmits info (output) to user through display screen
o User can enter info (input) for comp using a keyboard/mouse
- Comps can be self-contained units or interconnected through networks
- CPU consists of the control unit (directs operation of processor: controls communication
& coordination between devices, reads & interprets instructions, determines sequence for
processing the data, provides timing & control signals) & the arithmetic logic unit
(contains the circuitry to perform calculations & do comparisons: does exactly what
control unit tells it to do)
- Primary storage is composed of memory chips: electronic circuits that store data using
electric power
- Secondary storage: slower, less expensive persistent storage without using electric power
(hard disk)
- Data & program located in secondary storage & loaded into memory when program is
- Memory: typical comp has main memory from 4 GB to 32 GB (1 byte=8 bits, 1
kilobyte=1024 bytes, 1 megabyte=1 million bytes, 1 gigabyte=1 billion bytes)
- Executing a program:
o Program instructions & data (text, numbers, audio, video) stored in digital format
o When program starts, brought into memory where CPU reads it
o CPU runs program one instruction at a time (program may react to user input)
o CPU reads data (incl. user input), modifies it, writes it back to memory, screen, or
secondary storage
- Write algorithms to get comp to perform a task
- Sequence (order matters) of actions to take to accomplish the given task
find more resources at
find more resources at
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 2 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.