Psych - All Chapters.doc

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Department
Computer Science
Course
Computer Science 1032A/B
Professor
Maria Ferraro
Semester
Winter

Description
insight = sudden perception of a useful relationship or solution to a problem • Piget: Cognitive development in children  concluded new and specific stages of cognitive development unfold naturally as children mature • Ellis and Beck  Distress is not caused by external situations but the ways we think about those situations Modern Cognitive Science Artificial intelligence = computer models of complex human thought, reasoning, & problem solving • Concerned with how people recognize and produce speech Social constructivism = believes that what we consider ‘reality’ is in large part our own mental creation • Conflict occurs because of a clash in the different types of realities between ppl • Ex. Dartmouth vs. Princeton football game  preconceptions can alter the way we see reality  Princeton students preconceived Dartmouth to be dirty and thus manipulated the reality (re-watching the game) to support their beliefs (SEPTEMBER 12) p. 17-end The Psychodynamic Perspective: The Forces Within Psychodynamic perspective = search for the causes of behaviour within our own personality, emphasizing the role of unconscious processes & past unresolved conflicts • First psychodynamic theory was Freud’s psychoanalysis (= analysis of internal unconscious psychological forces) • Freud studied hysterical women, noticing that once recalling sexual abuse within their childhood, that the women’s hysteria symptoms subdued • Believed much of human behaviour is controlled by unconscious forces • Adult behaviour is shaped by early childhood experience & the way we govern our ‘internal forces’ as we grow up Repression = protects us by keeping anxiety-arousing impulses, feelings and memories in our unconscious (if this defence is broken, we act out in ways ‘unapproved’ by society) • *Dynamic relationship between repression and expressing our internal forces • Psychodynamic concepts helped inspire much research and many current practices of psychology derive some concepts from it The Behavioural Perspective: The Power of the Environment Behavioural perspective = notes how the external environment shapes & governs our actions • Behaviour determined by learnt habits in previous life experiences & whether they were rewarded/punished British Empiricism = root of behave. persp. = belief that humans are shaped by their experiences • “seeing is believing” (vs. reasoning which can be erred) Behaviourism = school of thought that env’tal control of behaviour through learning Behaviour modification = decreasing negative behaviour & increasing positive behaviour by altering controlling environmental factors (1960s) 3
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