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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 business processes.docx

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Computer Science
Computer Science 1032A/B

Chapter 2 business processes, information, and decision making What is a business process?  A business process is a network of activities, resources, facilities, and information that interact to achieve some business objective.  A business process is a system, which is sometimes also referred to as a business system.  Examples of business processes include inventory-management processes, manufacturing processes, sales processes, and customer-support processes. What are the components of a business process?  Activities transform resources and information of one type into resources and information of another type.  Follow rules and procedures  Manual and/ or automated  Ex: payment (activity) transforms quantity received (information) and shipping invoice (information) into payment to supplier (resource)  Resources are items of value.  External to organization  Ex: workers, customers, suppliers, cheque  Facilities are structures used within the business process.  Typically are inventories and databases. Other examples of facilities are factories, prices of equipment, trucks, filling cabinets 灌装柜, and the like 类似物.  Information  Activities use information to determine how to transform the inputs they receive into the outputs they produce.  The standard, called Business Process Modeling Notation (BOMN) provides four graphical elements that can be used to document a process. Data vs information  Important to understand the difference  Ex:  Data – hourly wage  Information – average wage  Data  Facts or figures  Collected  Record  Stored  Processed  Not meaningful on its own What is information?  Information is knowledge derived from data; data is defined as recorded facts or figures.  Information is Data presented in meaningful context  Information is Data processed by summing, ordering, averaging, grouping, comparing  Information is A difference that makes a difference  Characteristics of good information  Accurate  Good information is based on correct and complete data, and it has been processed correctly as expected.  Timely  Good information is timely information – produced in time for its intended use.  Relevant  Information should be relevant both to the context and to the subject.  Just barely 勉强 sufficient  Information needs to be sufficient for the purpose for which it is generated, but just barely so.  Worth its cost  For information to be worth its cost, there must be an appropriate relationship between the cost of information and its value. What is h role of information in business processes?  Any time a good is moved or service is provided; data and information are always created.  Business processes generate information:  Bring together items of data in a context  At higher level  Useful for management and strategy decision  EX: payment transforms Quantity Received and Shipping invoice into Payment To Supplier.  Business process management (BPM)  A field of management that promotes development of effective and efficient processes through continues improve and innovation.  Methods of BPM  Total Quality Management (TQM)  Six Sigma  Lean Production  Information about the process helps to manage the process itself. How do information systems support business processes?  IS used by activities  Several activities may use one system  Activity may have own system  Activity may use several systems  Relationship of activities to IS determined by system designers during systems development  Automated system means that work formerly done by people following procedures has been moved so that computers now do that work y following instructions in software. Thus, the automation of a process activity consists of moving work from the right side to the left side.   An information system to support counter sales  The cashiers need to be trained only in how to use the cash register; they never need to work directly with the sales-recording programs on the computer.  The designers of this system decided to fully automate it because the cashier’s job is a low-skill-level position with high turnover.   An information system to support payment  The information system that supports the payment activity is mostly manual system 手工的.  The designers of this system choose to leave it as a manual system because processing exceptions is complicated 复杂: there are many different except
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