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Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Hardware & Software

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Western University
Computer Science
Computer Science 1032A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 4: Hardware & Software 1 Information Technology: •Early Computers: - ENIAC: 1946, calculate firing tables for ballistic missiles - Mark II Aiken Relay Calculator: Harvard, 1947- terms “bug” & “debugged” arose b/c of moth caught in mechanical relays - digital computer: Canada, UofT, 1952 •Mainframes: - first generation: large, room-sized devices based on vacuum technology; cost: $200,000- $400,000; subtract or add 16,000 numbers/second - second generation: late 1950s; transistors- smaller, easier to maintain, reliable - > w/o software - third generation: mid 1960s; operating systems, multiprocessing capability; $millions •Microcomputers: - Texas Instruments & Intel - incorporated central processing system (CPUs) & some short term memory into single silicon chip using integrated circuits (ICs) - ex. MITS Altair 8800, Data Point 2200- 1975 - Microsoft created languages (BASIC) & operating systems (DOS) •Networking Personal Computers: - local area network (LAN): set of rules/protocols, allowed connected devices to communicate & share information; each device=specific address - wide area network (WAN): email, web browser, access to worldwide network of computers •Mobile & Tablet Computing: - save resources by coding last 2 digits of year vs 4 digits (i.e. 65 vs 1965) - dramatic lowering of costs=commonplace, adapted by groups in NorthAmerica & Europe • Summary: 1. Price & Performance: Moore’s Law- 18 months- price of IC will be halved 2. Small is powerful: nanotechnology- processor, memory, storage 3. Network is the thing Computer Hardware: Chapter 4: Hardware & Software 2 1.Input: keyboards, touch-screens, barcodes (cash registers), scanners 2.Processing: CPU- selects instructions, processes them, performs arithmetic & logical comparisons. store results/operations in memory; Hertz- kHz, mHz, GHz - main memory: random access memory (RAM) 3.Output: video displays, printers, audio speakers, plotters 4.Storage: saves data & programs; SSD & USB - special function cards: added to augment each of its components; i.e. additional monitor Computer Data: binary digits (bits): 0 (open) & 1 (close) - > direction of magnetism, small holes (reflection) • •byte: eight-bit chunks: 100 million bytes=100 million characters - K (1024 bytes) - > MB (1024 K) - > GB (1024 MB) - > terabyte: 1024 GB •data channel/bus: moves instructions from main memory into CPU •cache: small amount of very fast memory, in CPU operating system (OS): program controls computer’s resources & block of data • •memory swapping: CPU removes something & place just requested program/data into vacated space •volatile: contents are lost when power goes off; i.e. cache & main memory •nonvolatile: contents survive even when power goes off; i.e. USB, optical & magnetic disks Client, Server & Cloud Computing: •client: word processing, spreadsheet, database access, connect to network (i.e. private) •server: provides services; publish websites, host databases, support printing; i.e. Facebook, Google - server farm: large collection of computers that coordinate all activities •cloud computing: hardware, software & applications are provided as service; i
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