Computer Science 1032A/B Chapter Notes -Cloud Computing, Ampersand, Xml Namespace

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Chapter 1: Information Systems and You
What is an information system?
oInformation system - a group of components that interact to produce
oComprises a five-component framework of computer hardware,
software, data, procedures, and people
oHardware - refers to the electronic components and associated
gadgetry that constitute a computer system
oSoftware - refers only to programs (or applications that run, or
operate, on a computer system
oData - the basic building blocks of information such as facts and
oProcedures - the instructions or processes that you follow to achieve
your desired objective
oPeople - actors who want to achieve a particular outcome by
interacting with the system
oThe hardware of the system includes the tangible or physical devices
that are used to access the system, such as personal computers or
other devices (e.g. tablet or smartphone)
oThe software of the system includes the stored set of instructions that
run on your access device as well as the specific program that your
university has licensed to provide the service
oData for the system may be stored on specialized computers called
servers, which, through the power of networking, can be located
almost anywhere in the world (e.g. student ID numbers, enrollment
dates, etc.)
oThe procedures of the system are the steps that you follow to achieve
your goal and includes how you log on to, or access, the system and
how you save or submit your work
oYou are one of the people in the system, but so are the IS
professionals who built and maintain the site
People are often the most critical part of an information system
What is MIS?
oManagement information systems (MIS) - comprise the
development and use of information systems that help organizations
achieve their goals and objectives
Three key elements: development and use, information
systems, and goals and objectives
oDevelopment and use of information systems
Information systems are designed and created by business
analysts and systems designers at the request of senior
managers or entrepreneurs to solve a particular problem or
meet a perceived need
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oAchieving business goals and objectives
Information systems can be found in almost every type of
enterprise, social organization, and non-profit organization and
in governments of all level
Information systems exist to help organizational actors achieve
the goals and objectives of that organization
How does IS differ from IT?
oInformation technology (IT) - refers to methods, inventions,
standards, and products
oIT refers to raw technology, and it concerns only the hardware,
software, and data components of an information system and how
these are networked together
oIS refers to a system of hardware, software, data, procedures, and
people who product information
oIT is a part of IS - doesn’t help an organization by itself
oThe real difference between IT and IS is that IS includes people in the
How important are information systems to our economy?
oThe sector most closely related to the use of information systems in
Canada is the Information and Communications Technology (ICT)
Software & Computer Services (27%), ICT Manufacturing
(14%), Communications Services (32%), and ICT Wholesaling
Total revenue = $162.2 Billion (2010) - 4.9% overall
Growth rate of 3.8% (twice the growth rate of overall
Accounted for 9.5% of GDP growth since 2002
oMore people work in ICT than in agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining,
oil and gas, utilities, and the transportation industry combined
Comprises nearly 1.1 million Canadian workers
563,369 workers (2010) in the ICT sector
Employment in sector has declined since 2007 by 17,000
oThere will likely be more jobs in the future in “service” industries
oICT employee salaries are higher than the overall Canadian average
How do successful business professionals use information systems?
oBusiness professionals need to know more than the basics in terms of
information systems in order to have a competitive advantage
oInformation and Communications Technology Council (ICTC) of
Canada - 2010 report “ICT Labour Trends Outlook”
The report signals the need for individuals with a core set of
skills, including the following:
Technical skills
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Specific technology and industry experience
Satisfactory communication and other business skills
Outlines the difference between ICT industries and ICT user
ICT user industries comprise companies, organizations,
and public sector bodies that use ICT in their operations
- all industries other than those companies in the ICT
The report lists three occupations that the ICTC believes will
have above-average growth rates:
Manager, computer and information systems
Information systems analysts and consultants
User-support technicians
oBusiness professionals need to consider IT and IS when they think
about the problems and opportunities that confront a department or
What is the shape of things to come?
oTechnology is getting easier to use
oMoore’s law - noted that density circuits on an integrated chip was
doubling approximately every two years or so
Not real or natural “law” but has proven to be fairly accurate
oCost of computers has significantly decreased and will continue to
decrease in the future
o“Network effects” and “lock-in” - where the value that is received
increases significantly as the number of users increases
oDevices are shrinking in size (tied to Moore’s law)
oIT is difficult to predict because it’s all about innovation, and this brings
unexpected results
o“Creative destruction” - the overturning of established industries, such
as video stores, by new industries, such as video on demand
oSays that business is changing because of advances in IS and IT and
business people need a better understanding of how IT can be used to
support innovation - Hal Varian
oWithin the next decade, unlimited storage will be almost free,
analytical software will reveal hidden information, and the real world
and the virtual work will collide as wide-area networks (WANs) become
cheap, reliable, and widely available - David Ticoll
Chapter 2: Business Process, Management, and
Decision Making
What is a business process?
oBusiness process (business system) - a series of tasks or steps
designed to produce a product or service
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