CompSci 1032 Textbook Chapters .doc

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Final Exam
April-18-14
6:41 PM
Chapter 5
April-18-14
7:08 PM
Chapter 5
What Is Content?
In the broadest sense content is property, and is often closely related to
intellectual property
Intellectual Property = A form of creating endeavor that can be protected
through a trademark patent, copyright, industrial design, or integrated circuit topography
In general content varies by industry e.g. in advertising content refers to
pictures, commercials etc…
Computers have created digital content that can be stored, and networks (e.g.
Internet) have increased the ability to distribute it
Basically everything electronic a company has is content (word docs,
spreadsheets, webpages, etc…)
The expanding volume of content and the growing number of formats in which it
is provided can make it difficult for individuals and corporations to effectively utilize that
content
Therefore managing content is an important challenge for businesses to
understand and appreciate
How Can Content Be Organized?
The challenge in content management is indexing/cataloguing the right
information, processing and storing it, and then getting it to the right person in the right
format at the right time
Data management focuses on how to effectively and efficiently store and process
bytes, and the management of many types of data has traditionally been handled though
organization database management systems (DBMS)
In the early days of the web, employees could upload content to the company’s
website, but today the presentation of content in organization is increasingly handled by
software
Web Content Management Systems (CMS) have been developed to helped
companies organize this process
The process goes like this:
Employee wants to place some content on the organizations website
Employee access’s the web CMSs, and loads the raw content into the
web CMS
Copy editor reviews the documents and makes any needed changes
Layout Artists then prepare the content for presentation, which is stored
with the help of a DBMS
Manager in charge of website reviews the content and presentation and
publishes the work to the live website
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CMS’s have also evolved and have grown beyond their original role of only
organizing documents for corporate websites they now actively seek out documents
located across an organization and automatically manage access to this content
Media files, word docs, html pages etc… can all be categorized and searched by
CMS’s which allows for the increased organization of a wider range of a corporations data
assets
Current CMS’s also handle document archiving and the increased use of
electronic files for document management
What is the Purpose of a Database?
Basically a database keeps track of things, and it’s advantage over a
spreadsheet is that it can keep track of more things in one place easier to develop and
maintain
What Does a Database Contain?
Database = Self-describing collection of integrated records
Bytes are grouped into columns (called fields) which, in turn, are grouped into
rows (called records), and a group of similar rows or records is called a table (called
relation) or file
A database, however is not just a collection of tables, it is a collection of tables
plus relationships among the rows in those tables, plus special data (called metadata) that
describe the structure of a database
Relationships among Records
Key = a column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table
E.g. Student Number is the key of the Student table because given a
value of student number, you can determine one and only one row in the student table
Every table must have a key, and sometimes more than one column is needed to
form a unique identifier
E.g. Table called City will have a key consisting of the columns City, and
Province because a given city name can appear in more than one province
One key from one table may not be the key for another table
E.g. Student number is not key for email table, as a student can send
multiple emails and thus his/her student number will appear multiple times
Foreign Keys = Coloumns that fulfill a role of key in their table but also appear in
other tables (e.g. Student number in Email Table is a foreign key)
Relational Databases = Databases that carry their data in the form of tables that
represent relationships using foreign keys (only type of database considered in this book
and is used WAY more often)
MetaData
Databases are self-describing because they contain not only data but also data
about the data in the database
Metadata = Data that describes data, and the format of metadata depends on
the software produce that is processing the database (e.g. the field properties in Microsoft
Access)
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The presence of metadata makes databases much more useful than
spreadsheets or data in other lists because of metadata no one needs to guess,
remember or even record what is in the database
What is a DBMS, and What Does It Do?
Pure database data are correct, but in raw form they are not pertinent or useful
Database Application Systems make database data more useful and
accessible
Users employ a database application that consists of forms, formatter reports,
queries and application programs, and each of these in turn calls on the DBMS to process
the database tables
The Database Management System
Database Management System (DBMS) is a program used to create, process,
and administer a database
Similarly to operating systems, almost no organization develops its own DMBS,
but instead companies license DBMS products from vendors such as Microsoft
Popular DBMS are DB2 (IBM), Access and SQL Server (Microsoft), Oracle
(Oracle Corporation), and MySQL(Open-source)
Note DBMS and database are 2 different things (even though many confuse the
two) A DMBS is a software program, a database is a collection of tables,
relationships and metadata
Creating the Database and Its Structures
Database developers use the DBMS to create tables, relationships and other
structures in the database E.g. to modify an existing table, the developer can open the
metadata form for a table and add a new column
Processing the Database
Second function of the DBMS is to process the database, and applications use
the DBMS for 4 operations: read, insert, modify, or delete data
E.g. when a user enters or changes data on a form, a computer program
processes the data provided and then calls the DBMS to make the necessary
database changes
Structured Query Language = The only language that relational databases use
when communicating data from a database, and is an international standard language for
processing a database
Essentially a query can be thought of as a question, and SQL can be thought of
as a formal way of putting a question to a database and the answer to the query is the data
that is specified
Administering the Database
Third DBMS function to provide tools to assist in the administration of the
database, which involves a wide variety of activities
It can be used to setup security system involving use accounts, passwords,
permissions, and limits for processing the database
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