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Computer Science
Computer Science 1032A/B
Diane Goldstein

CHAPTER 8 Q1. WhatAre the Challenges Managers Face in Making Decisions? - Ackoff suggested that several erroneous assumptions were being made about IS and described how they affected managerial decision making. 1. Managers have no problem making decisions if they get the data they needed. - Too many possibilities exist to expect decisions to improve with data 2. Decisions are poor because managers lack relevant info - Managers instead suffere more from an overabundance of irrelevant data >> this is called information overload 3. Managers are aware of the data they need - In reality, managers are often not sure just what data they need >> tendency is to ask as much data they can get resulting in overload Information Overload - Petabyte = 10 to the 12 bytes - Exabyte = 10 to the 18 bytes - The challenge for managers in a world overloaded with info is to find the appropriate data and incorporate them into their decision processes. IS can both help and hinder this process Data Quality -Afinal challenge in decision making is the quality of the data - Problemic data are named dirty data - Missing values are a second problem - Incosistent data is the third problem, common in data gathered over time - Data can be too fine or coarse. Data Granularity refers to the degree of summarization or detail >> Coarse data are highly summarized, fine data express precise details - Clickstream Data is E-Commerce data that describe a customer’s clicking behavior. Includes everything the customer does at the website.Are Too Fine - Generally, it is better to have too fine than too coarse granularity - Complexity, uncertainty, overload and data quality make management decision making challenging Q2. What is OLTP and How Does It Support Decision Making? - IS are a critical component for capturing and processing the details about transactions because they are very efficient and accurate - Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) is collecting data electronically and processing transactions online - There are two basic ways that transactions can be processed 1. If transactions are entered and processed immediately upon entry, system is operating in “real time” - There is little or no delay in updating systems with new data - More complex and cost more to implement - Provide the up to date info 2. If transactions are collected before the data are processed and info is updated, system is operating in “batch” processing - System waits until it has a batch of transactions before processing, updating - OLTP systems are backbone of all functional, cross-functional and interorganizational systems in an organization - OLTP are designed to efficiently enter, process and store data - OLTP systems support decision making by providing the raw info about transactions and status for an organization Q3. What are OLAP and the Data Resource Challenge? - Using OLTP to collect data is important - Data Resource Challenge occurs when data are collected in OLTP but are not used to improve decision making - Systems that focus on making OLTP collected data useful for decision making are often referred to as Decision Support Systems (DSS) or more generally as Online Analytic Processing (OLAP) - OLAP provides ability to sum, count, average and perform other simple arithmetic operations on groups of data. Their format is dynamic. Viewer of the report can change the report’s structure. Therefore term online - An OLAP report has measures or facts and dimensions. A measurer is the data item of interest. Adimension is a characteristic of a measure - Presentation of a measjuere with associated dimensions is often called an OLAP cube - OLAP report = OLAP cube - With an OLAP report, it is possible to “Drill Down” into the data; this term means to further divide the data into more detail. Q4. How Do BI Systems Provide CompetitiveAdvantage - A Business Intelligence (BI) System is a system that provides information for improvind decision making - Reporting Sys
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