Chapter 1 - Introduction.docx

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Department
Earth Sciences
Course
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Professor
Stephen R Hicock
Semester
Fall

Description
Earthsci Introduction 9/11/2012 9:27:00 AM What does Geology “the study of earth” Geology mean? Geo – earth Ology – Study of How is it Why? important for We have a natural human curiosity, to better protect our us? environment. Practical aspects - food, clean water, energy, resources to provide necessities - waste disposal, natural disasters What is Uniformitarianism uniformitarianis - earth processes today, streams winds landslides tectonics, have m? What has always occurred changed? - rates of these processes have changed overtime  “the present is the key to the past” The assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now, have always operated in the universe in the pass How long? - Measures earth history in billions of years - planet has been around for 4.5 billion years - amount of time to erode high mountain ranges What explains Where and How? the creation of Big bang theory 15 billion years ago earth? Nebular Hypothesis – 5 b.y ago - solar nebula, (cloud) What is the of hydrogen and helium nebular contracted under hypothesis? gravity into the flat disc How long ago of our solar system. did it happen? - collisions of rocky materials, gathered together to form earth. Particles were pulled in, and others migrated outwards. - Earth formed core, mantle, and crust How was the Helium and hydrogen produced nuclear reactions, produced heat, core formed? - Lighter elements formed crust, heavy elements (iron, How was the magnesium) formed the core. crust formed? Explain and Plate tectonic draw the Crust and uppermost mantle formed rigid plates of different layers - Lithosphere (rock) that ride on the of the earth. - Asthenosphere which moves by convection Who is the man that founded Alfred Wegener – meteorologist the idea of the - 1920’s continental - founded idea “continental drift” drift? When? - breakup of the supercontinent What is the Pangaea name given to - fit of the continents; South the large land America and Africa mass that used - good at 900 m to occur? - fossils match across oceans, species could not swim such a great distance What are some - rocks and structures also match across ocean basins of the evidence - ancient climates that showcase - find glacial rocks where glaciers could not exist today (paleo this theory? climates) - coal fields in today’s cold polar areas, fossil trees that form in tropical climates, could only be explained by the Pangaea, where parts of Antarctica could have been sub tropical. -he believed continents plowed through oceanic curst, but he was When one plate wrong. goes below another, what North American Plate is this called? - subduction zone west of BC (one plate subducts below Where is an another, converging margin) example of - causes to move west due to the asthenosphere convection this? movement What - reverse movement, convection system of the pacific plate to the boundaries east. exist? - convergent boundaries exist here. Where does - Most geologic activity (e.g. earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides) most geologic happen at the PLATE BOUNDARIES, especially convergent activity boundaries. happen? What are the Earth System & Rock Cycle parts of the - Earth is a system of interacting HYDROSPHERE, earth’s system? ATMOSPHERE
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