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Chapter 4

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Econ 103 Ch 4: Page 88 (page 490 in Economics) 1. Define GDP and distinguish between a final good and an intermediate good. Provide examples. GDP is the market value of all the final goods and services produced within a country in a given time period. A final good or service is an item that is sold to the final user, that is, the final consumer, government, a firm making investment, or a foreign entity. An intermediate good or service is an item that is produced by one firm, bought by another firm, and used as a component of a final good or service. For instance, bread sold to a consumer is a final good, but wheat sold to a baker to make the bread is an intermediate good. Distinguishing between final goods and services and intermediate goods and services is important because only final goods and services are directly included in GDP; intermediate goods must be excluded to avoid double counting them. For example, counting the wheat that went into the bread as well as the bread would double count the wheat—once as wheat and once as part of the bread. 2. Why does GDP equal aggregate income and also equal aggregate expenditure? GDP equals aggregate income because one way to value production is by the cost of the factors of production employed. GDP equals aggregate expenditure because another way to value production is by the price that buyers pay for it in the market. 3. What is the distinction between gross and net? “Gross” means before subtracting depreciation or capital consumption. “Net” means after subtracting depreciation or capital consumption. The terms apply to investment, business profit, and aggregate production. Page 91 (page 493 in Economics) 1. What is the expenditure approach to measuring GDP? The expenditure approach measures GDP by focusing on aggregate expenditures. Data are collected on the different components of aggregate expenditure and then summed. Specifically, the Bureau of Economic Analysis collects data on consumption expenditure, C, investment, I, government expenditure on goods and services, G, and net exports, NX. These expenditures are valued at the prices paid for the goods and services, called the market price. GDP is then calculated as C + I + G + NX. 2. What is the income approach to measuring GDP? The income approach measures GDP by focusing on aggregate income. This approach sums all the incomes paid to households by firms for the factors of production they hire. The National Income and Product Accounts divide income into five categories: compensation of employees; net interest; rental income; corporate profits; and proprietors’ income. Adding these income components does not quite equal GDP, because it values the output at factor cost rather than the market price and omits depreciation. So, further adjustments must be made to calculate GDP: Indirect taxes and depreciation must be added and subsidies subtracted. 3. What adjustments must be made to total income to make it equal GDP? Total income is net domestic product at factor cost. To convert it to gross domestic product at market prices, we must add the depreciation of capital and add indirect taxes minus subsidies. 4. What is the distinction between nominal GDP and real GDP? Nominal GDP is the value of final goods and services produced in a given year valued at the prices of that year. Real GDP is the value of final goods and services produced in a given year when valued at the prices of a reference base year. By comparing the value of production in the two years at the same prices, we reveal the change in production. 5. How is real GDP calculated? The traditional method of calculating real GDP is to value each year’s GDP at the constant prices of a fixed base year. Page 97 (page 499 in Economics) 1. Distinguish between real GDP and potential GDP and describe how each grows over time. Real GDP is the value of final goods and services produced in a given year when valued at the prices of a reference base year. Potential GDP is the amount of real GDP that would be produced when all the economy’s labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurial ability are fully employed. So real GDP is the actual amount produced with the actual level of employment of the nation’s factors of production while potential GDP is the amount that would be produced if there were full employment of all factors of production. 2. How does the growth rate of real GDP contribute to an improved standard of living? A benefit of long-term economic growth is the increased consumption of goods and services that is made possible. Growth of real GDP also allows more resources to be devoted to areas such as health care, research, and environmental protection. 3. What is a business cycle and what are its phases and turning points? The business cycle is a periodic but irregular up-and-down movement of total production and other measures of economic activity. A business cycle has two phases: recession and expansion. The turning points are the peak and the trough. A business cycle runs from a trough to an expansion to a peak to a recession to a trough and then back to an expansion. 4. What is PPP and how does it help us to make valid international comparisons of real GDP? PPP is purchasing power parity. To make the most valid international comparisons of real GDP, we need to value each nation’s production using purchasing power parity prices rather than by using exchange rates and the prices within each country because relative prices within different countries can vary widely. As a result, if the real GDP of each country is valued using the same PPP prices then the comparison of real GDP among the countries is more accurate. 5. Explain why real GDP might be an unreliable indicator of the standard of living. Real GDP is sometimes used to measure the standard of living but real GDP can be misleading for several reasons. Real GDP does not include household production, productive activities done in and around the house by the homeowner. Because these tasks often are an important component of people’s work, this omission creates a major measurement problem. Real GDP omits the underground economy, economic activity that is legal but unreported or that is illegal. In many countries the underground economy is an important part of economic activity, and its omission creates a serious measurement problem. Real GDP does not include a measurement of people’s health and life expectancy, both factors that obviously affect economic well being. The value of leisure time is not included in real GDP. People value their leisure hours, and an increase in people’s leisure that enhances people’s economic welfare can lower the nation’s real GDP and lower the nation’s well-being. Environmental damage is excluded from real GDP. So an economy wherein real GDP grows but at the expense of its environment, as was the case with Eastern European countries under communism, falsely appears to offer greater economic welfare than a similar economy that grows slightly more slowly but at less environmental cost. Real GDP does not indicate the extent of political freedom and social justice enjoyed by a nation’s citizens. Page 101 (page 503 in Economics) 1. The table provides data on the economy of Tropical Quantities 2008 2009 Bananas 1,000 bunches 1,100 bunches Republic that produces only Coconuts 500 bunches 525 bunches bananas and coconuts. Calculate Tropical Republic’s Prices nominal GDP in 2008 and 2009 and its chained-dollar Bananas $2 a bunch $3 a bunch Coconuts $10 a bunch $8 a bunch real GDP in 2009 expressed in 2008 dollars. In 2008, nominal GDP is $7,000. In 2009, nominal GDP is $7,500. Nominal GDP in 2008 is equal to total expenditure on the goods and services produced by Tropical Republic in 2008. Expenditure on bananas is 1,000 bunches of bananas at $2 a bunch, which is $2,000, and expenditure on coconuts is 500 bunches at $10 a bunch, which is $5,000. Total expenditure is $7,000, so nominal GDP in 2008 is $7,000. Nominal GDP in 2009 is equal to total expenditure on the goods and services produced by Tropical Republic in 2009. Expenditure on bananas is 1,100 bunches at $3 a bunch, which is $3,300 and expenditure on coconuts is 525 bunches at $8 a bunch, which is $4,200. Total expenditure is $7,500 so nominal GDP in 2009 is $7,500. Real GDP in 2009 is $7,475.30. The chained-dollar method uses the prices of 2008 and 2009 to calculate the growth rate in 2009. The value of the 2008 quantities at 2008 prices is $7,000. The value of the 2009 quantities at 2008 prices is $7,450. We now compare these values. The increase in the value is $450. The percentage increase is ($450 ▯ $7,000) ▯ 100, which is 6.43 percent. Next the value of the 2008 quantities at 2009 prices is $7,000. The value of the 2009 quantities at 2009 prices is $7,500. We now compare these values. The increase in the value is $500. The percentage increase is ($500 ▯ $7,000) ▯ 100, which is 7.14 percent. The chained dollar method calculates the growth rate as the average of these two percentage growth rates, which means that the growth rate in 2009 is 6.79 percent. So real GDP in 2009 is calculated as $7,000, which is real GDP in the base year (and is equal to nominal GDP in that year) multiplied by one plus the growth rate. Real GDP in 2009 is $7,475.30. Ch 6: Page 135 (page 537 in Economics) 1. What is economic growth and how do we calculate its rate? Economic growth is the sustained expansion of production possibilities. It is measured by the increase in real GDP over a given time period. The economic growth rate is the annual percentage change in real GDP. 2. What is the relationship between the growth rate of real GDP and the growth rate of real GDP per person? The growth rate of real GDP tells how rapidly the total economy is expanding while the growth rate of real GDP per person tells how the standard of living is changing. The growth rate of real GDP per person approximately equals the growth rate of real GDP minus the population growth rate. 3. Use the Rule of 70 to calculate the growth rate that leads to a doubling of real GDP per person in 20 years. The rule of 70 states that the number of years it takes for the level of any variable to double is approximately equal to 70 divided by the growth rate. If the level of real GDP doubles in 20 years, the rule of 70 gives 20 = 70 ▯ (growth rate) so that the growth rate equals 70 ▯ 20, which is 3.5 percent per year. Page 138 (page 540 in Economics) 1. What has been the average growth rate of U.S. real GDP per person over the past 100 years? In which periods was growth the most rapid and in which periods was it the slowest? Over the past 100 years, U.S. real GDP per person grew at an average rate of 2 percent per year. Slow growth occurred during mid-1950s and 1973–1983. Very slow growth (negative growth!) also occurred during the Great Depression. Growth was rapid during the 1920s and 1960s. Growth was also (extremely!) rapid during World War II. 2. Describe the gaps between real GDP per person in the United States and other countries. For which countries is the gap narrowing? For which is it widening? And for is it remaining the same? Some rich countries are catching up with the United States, but the gaps between the United States and many poor countries are not closing. Amongst the rich countries, since 1960 Japan has closed the gap with the United States but the gaps between the United States and Canada, and the “Europe Big 4” (France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom) have tended to remain constant. Other Western European nations and the former Communist countries of Central Europe have fallen slightly farther behind the United States. The gap between the United States and most nations in Africa, and Central and South America has widened. But some nations in Asia— including Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and China—have grown very rapidly. The gap between these nations and the United States has shrunk; indeed, Singapore has slightly surpassed the United States and Hong Kong has virtually tied the United States. 3. Compare the growth rates and levels of real GDP per person in Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, China, and the United States. How far is China’s real GDP per person behind that of the other Asian economies? Since 1960, income per person in the nations of Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Korea, and China have grown very rapidly and are rapidly catching up to the United States. Income per person in Hong Kong is virtually the same as that in the United States and income per person in Singapore slightly exceeds that in the United States. Income in Taiwan and Korea also are relatively close and income in China is the lowest, though recently China has been growing the most rapidly. China’s level of income in 2008 is similar to that of Hong Kong in 1968. Page 144 (page 546 in Economics) 1. What is the aggregate production function? The aggregate production function is the relationship that tells us how real GDP changes as the quantity of labor changes when all other influences on production remain the same. 2. What determines the demand for labor, the supply of labor, and labor market equilibrium? The demand for labor depends on the real wage rate. A fall in the real wage rate increases the quantity of labor demanded because of diminishing returns. The demand for labor also depends on productivity. If productivity increases, the demand for labor increases. The supply of labor also depends on the real wage rate. An increase in the real wage rate increases the quantity of labor supplied because more people enter the labor force and the hours supplied per person increases. The real wage adjusts so that the labor market is in equilibrium. If the real wage rate is above (below) its equilibrium, there is a surplus (shortage) of labor that then causes the real wage rate to fall (rise). For example, if the real wage rate is above the equilibrium level, there is a surplus of labor so the real wage rate falls until it reaches its equilibrium. The equilibrium quantity of employment is the full employment quantity of labor. 3. What determines potential GDP? Potential GDP is determined from the labor market equilibrium. When the labor market is in equilibrium, there is full employment. The quantity of real GDP produced by the full employment quantity of labor is potential GDP. 4. What are the two broad sources of potential GDP growth? The two broad sources of growth in potential GDP are growth of the supply of labor and growth of labor productivity. 5. What are the effects of an increase in the population on potential GDP, the quantity of labor, the real wage rate, and potential GDP per hour of labor? An increase in population increases the supply of labor. Employment increases and the real wage rate falls. The increase in employment creates a movement along the aggregate production function so potential GDP increases. Because of diminishing returns, real GDP per hour of labor decreases. 6. What are the effects of an increase in labor productivity on potential GDP, the quantity of labor, the real wage rate, and potential GDP per hour of labor? The increase in labor productivity shifts the aggregate production function curve upward. It also increases the demand for labor, and the demand for labor curve shifts rightward. The increase in the demand for labor raises the real wage rate and increases employment. The increase in employment as well as the upward shift of the aggregate production function increase potential GDP. Real GDP per hour of labor increases. Page 147 (page 549 in Economics) 1. What are the preconditions for and sources of labor productivity growth? The fundamental preconditions for labor productivity growth are: firms, markets, property rights, and money. These fundamental preconditions create an incentive system that can lead to labor productivity growth. Once these preconditions are in place, the sources of labor productivity growth are physical capital growth, human capital growth, and advances in technology. All of these activities enable an economy to grow and they all increase labor productivity. They all also interact: human capital creates new technologies, which are then embodied in both new human capital and new physical capital. 2. What is the one third rule and how is it used? The one-third rule holds that on the average, with no change in technology a 1 percent increase in capital per hour of labor creates a 1/3 percent increase in output per hour of labor, that is, in productivity. The one-third rule is used to divide observed productivity growth into growth that is the result of capital accumulation and growth that is the result of technological advances. The procedure is straightforward: The growth rate in capital per hour of labor is multiplied by one third. The resulting number is the productivity growth resulting from capital accumulation. This growth rate is then subtracted from the total productivity growth rate, and the difference is the productivity growth caused by technological advances (including growth in human capital). 3. What slowed labor productivity growth between 1973 and 1983? At one level, the productivity growth slowdown in the United States was the failure of technology to contribute much to (measured) productivity growth. This answer is relatively shallow. A deeper answer explains why technology did not contribute much to measured productivity. Technology did not add much to productivity growth because of the energy price shocks. The huge price hikes for energy diverted investment in new technology from enhancing productivity to replacing no longer economical, fuel- guzzling capital. Page 153 (page 555 in Economics) 1. What is the key idea of classical growth theory that leads to the dismal outcome? The “dismal outcome” in classical theory is the conclusion that in the long run real GDP per person equals the subsistence level. In classical growth theory, an increase in labor productivity leads to higher incomes, which causes population increases that return real GDP per person to the subsistence level because of diminishing returns to labor. In the classical growth theory, an increase in productivity increases the demand for labor. The real wage rate rises and GDP increases. The increase in the real wage rate means that people’s incomes rise, which then creates a population boom. The increase in population increases the supply of labor. Because of diminishing returns to labor, the increase in the supply of labor lowers the real wage rate. As long as the real wage rate remains above the subsistence level, population growth and hence growth in the labor supply continues. Eventually the real wage rate falls to equal the subsistence level, at which time the population stops growing. Total GDP is higher than before the increase in productivity, but GDP per person is the same as before and is at the subsistence level. 2. What, according to neoclassical growth theory, is the fundamental cause of economic growth? In neoclassical growth theory, growth results from technological advances, which are determined by chance. 3. What is the key proposition of new growth theory that makes growth persist? The key proposition that makes growth persist indefinitely in the new growth theory is the assumption that the returns to knowledge and human capital do not diminish. As a result, increases in knowledge do not cause diminishing returns and the incentive to innovate remains high. As people accumulate more knowledge, the incentive to innovate does not fall and so people continue to innovate new and better ways to produce new and better products. This innovation means that economic growth persists indefinitely. Ch 7: Page 166 (page 568 in Economics) 1. Distinguish between physical capital and financial capital and give two examples of each. Physical capital is the actual tools, instruments, machines, buildings and other items that have been produced in the past and are presently used to produce goods and services. Financial capital is the funds that businesses use to acquire their physical capital. Examples of physical capital are the pizza ovens owned by Pizza Hut and the buildings in which the Pizza Huts are located. Examples of financial capital are the bonds issued by Pizza Hut to buy pizza ovens and the loans Pizza Hut has made to fund their purchases of new buildings. 2. What is the distinction between gross investment and net investment? Gross investment is the total amount spent on new capital; net investment is the change in the capital stock. Net investment equals gross investment minus depreciation. 3. What are the three main types of markets for financial capital? The main types of markets for financial capital are the loan markets, the bond markets, and the stock markets. 4. Explain the connection between the price of a financial asset and its interest rate. There is an inverse relationship between the price of a financial asset and its interest rate. When the price of a financial asset rises, its interest rate falls. Similarly, when the interest rate on an asset falls, the price of the asset rises. Page 171 (page 573 in Economics) 1. What is the market for loanable funds? The market for loanable funds is the market in which households, firms, governments, banks, and other financial institutions borrow and lend. It is the aggregate of all the individual financial markets and includes loan markets, bond markets, and stock markets. The real interest rate is determined in this market. 2. Why is the real interest rate the opportunity cost of loanable funds? The real interest rate is the opportunity cost of loanable funds because the real interest rate measures what is forgone by using the funds. If the funds are loaned, then the real interest rate is received. If the funds are borrowed, then the real interest is paid for the funds. The real interest rate forgone when funds are used either to buy consumption goods and services or to invest in new capital goods is the opportunity cost of not saving or not lending those funds. 3. How do firms make investment decisions? To determine the quantity of investment, firms compare the expected profit rate from an investment to the real interest rate. The expected profit from an investment is the benefit from the investment. The real interest rate is the opportunity cost of investment. If the expected profit from an investment exceeds the cost of the real interest rate, then firms make the investment. If the expected profit from an investment is less than the cost of the real interest rate, then firms do not make the investment. 4. What determines the demand for loanable funds and what makes it change? The demand for loanable funds depends on the real interest rate and expected profit. If the real interest rate falls and nothing else changes, the quantity of loanable funds demanded increases. Conversely, if the real interest rate rises and everything else remains the same, the quantity of loanable funds demanded decreases. Movements along the loanable funds demand curve illustrate these events. If the expected profit increases and nothing else changes, the demand for loanable funds increases and the demand for loanable funds curve shifts rightward. If the expected profit decreases and everything else remains the same, the demand for loanable funds decreases and the demand for loanable funds curve shifts leftward. 5. How do households make saving decisions? A household’s saving depends on five factors: the real interest rate, the household’s disposable income, the household’s expected future income, wealth, and default risk. A household increases its saving if the real interest rate increases, its disposable income increases, its expected future income decreases, its wealth decreases, or if default risk decreases. 6. What determines the supply of loanable funds and what makes it change? The supply of loanable funds depends on the real interest rate, disposable income, expected future income, wealth, and default risk. An increase in the real interest rate increases the quantity of loanable funds supplied; a decrease in the real interest rate decreases the quantity of loanable funds supplied. An increase in disposable income increases the supply of loanable funds; a decrease in disposable income decreases the supply of loanable funds. An increase in wealth decreases the supply of loanable funds; a decrease in wealth increases the supply of loanable funds. An increase in expected future income decreases the supply of loanable funds; a decrease in expected future income increases the supply of loanable funds. Finally, an increase in default risk decreases the supply of loanable funds; a decrease in default risk increases the supply of loanable funds. 7. How do changes in the demand for and supply of loanable funds change the real interest rate and quantity of loanable funds? The real interest rate is determined by the supply of loanable funds and the demand for loanable funds. The equilibrium real interest rate is the real interest rate at which the quantity of loanable funds supplied equals the quantity of loanable funds demanded. Changes in the demand for or supply of loanable funds change the equilibrium real interest rate and equilibrium quantity of loanable funds. If the demand for loanable funds increases (decreases), the real interest rate rises (falls) and the quantity of loanable funds increases (decreases). If the supply of loanable funds increases (decreases) the real interest rate falls (rises) and the quantity of loanable funds increases (decreases). Page 174 (page 576 in Economics) 1. How does a government budget surplus or deficit influence the market for loanable funds? A government budget surplus adds to the supply of loanable funds. A government budget deficit adds to the demand for loanable funds. 2. What is the crowding-out effect and how does it work? The crowding out effect refers to the decrease in investment that occurs when the government budget deficit increases. An increase in the government budget deficit increases the demand for loanable funds. As a result the real interest rate rises. The rise in the real interest rate decreases—“crowds out”—investment. 3. What is the Ricardo-Barro effect and how does it modify the crowding-out effect? The Ricardo-Barro effect points out that the crowding out effect is less than predicted by looking only at the effect of a budget deficit on the demand for loanable funds. The Ricardo-Barro effect asserts that as a result of a government budget deficit households increase their saving to pay the higher taxes that will be needed in the future to repay the debt issued to fund the deficit. The increase in saving increases the supply of loanable funds. This increase in the supply of loanable funds offsets the rise in the real interest rate from the increase in the demand for loanable funds caused by the budget deficit. Because the real interest rate does not rise as much, the decrease in investment, that is the amount of crowding out, is less in the presence of the Ricardo-Barro effect. Page 177 (page 579 in Economics) 1. Why do loanable funds flow among countries? Loanable funds flow among countries because savers are searching for the highest (risk-adjusted) real interest rate and borrowers are searching for the lowest (risk- adjusted) real interest rate. 2. What determines the demand for and supply of loanable funds in an individual economy? The demand for and supply of loanable funds in an economy with international lending and borrowing depend on the same factors as in an economy without international lending and borrowing with one exception: If, at the world real interest rate, the country has a surplus of funds, it can lend the surplus to the rest of the world while if, at the world real interest rate, the country has a shortage of funds, it can borrow from the rest of the world. 3. What happens if a country has a shortage of loanable funds at the world real interest rate? If a country has a shortage of loanable funds at the world real interest rate, it borrows from other nations and becomes an international borrower. 4. What happens if a country has a surplus of loanable funds at the world interest rate? If a country has a surplus of loanable funds at the world real interest rate, it loans to other nations and becomes an international lender. 5. How is a government budget deficit financed in an open economy? A government budget deficit increases the demand for loanable funds. In an open economy, the increase in the demand for loanable funds means the country lends less to the rest of the world (if it initially was an international lender) or borrows more from the rest of the world (if it initially was an international borrower). These changes in lending or borrowing finance the budget deficit. Ch 9: Page 216 (page 618 in Economics) 1. What is the foreign exchange market and what prices are determined in this market? The foreign exchange market is the market in which the currency of one country is exchanged for the currency of another country. The exchange rate, the price at which one currency is exchanged for another, is the price determined in the foreign exchange market. 2. Distinguish between appreciation and depreciation of the dollar. The U.S. dollar appreciates when it rises in value against a foreign currency. The U.S. dollar depreciates when it falls in value against a foreign currency. 3. What are the world’s major currencies? The world’s major currencies are the U.S. dollar, the Australian dollar, the Canadian dollar, the euro, the Japanese yen, the English pound, the Swedish krone, and the Swiss franc. The Chinese yuan also is becoming important. 4. Against which currencies and during which years has the U.S. dollar appreciated since 1998? Since 1998, the U.S. dollar appreciated against the Mexican peso virtually every year until 2004. The U.S. dollar generally appreciated against the Canadian dollar until 2002. The U.S. dollar appreciated against the Japanese yen in 1998, with another slight appreciation from 2000 to 2001. 5. Against which currencies and during which years has the U.S. dollar depreciated since 1998? The U.S. dollar depreciated slightly against the Mexican peso since 2004 and ever so slightly in 2000. The U.S. dollar depreciated against the Canadian dollar since 2002. The U.S. dollar generally depreciated against the Japanese yen from 1999 though the change has been slight. The U.S. dollar depreciated against the euro since 2002. 6. What is the distinction between the nominal exchange rate and the real exchange rate? The nominal exchange rate is the value of the U.S. dollar expressed in units of foreign currency per U.S. dollar. It measures how many units of a foreign currency are necessary to buy one U.S. dollar. The real exchange rate is the relative price of U.S-produced goods and services to foreign-produced goods and services. It measures how many units of foreign-produced GDP one unit of U.S.-produced GDP buys. 7. What does the trade-weighted index measure? The trade-weighted index shows the average U.S. exchange rate. It is calculated by weighting each nation’s individual currency exchange rate by its importance in U.S. international trade. Page 220 (page 622 in Economics) 1. What are the influences on the demand for U.S. dollars in the foreign exchange market? The demand for U.S. dollars depends on four main factors: the exchange rate, the world demand for U.S. exports, the interest rate in the United State and other countries, and the expected future exchange rate. 2. Provide an example of the exports effect on the demand for U.S. dollars. The exports effect is the result that the larger the value of U.S. exports, the larger the quantity of dollars demanded for purchasing those exports from U.S. firms. When the exchange rate for U.S. dollars falls, U.S. exports become cheaper relative to other countries’ goods and services so the volume of U.S. exp
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