CHAPTER 15.docx

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Western University
Environmental Science
Environmental Science 1021F/G
Geoff Stewart

CHAPTER 15: FRESHWATER RESOURCES -WASTEWATER: used and contaminated water that is released after use by households, industry, or agriculture WATER IS ONE OF THE MOST UBIQUITOUS, YET SCARCE, RESOURCES ON EARTH -Earth is covered in 75% of water -up to 75% of the human body consists of water -ocean water is too salty for human consumption and is toxic in large doses -FRESHWATER: water that has few dissolved ions such as salt -nearly 80% of Earth’s freshwater is trapped in ice caps at the poles and glaciers around the world -wherever you see water, it is constantly moving through the environment through the water cycle -WATER CYCLE (HYDROLOGIC CYCLE): the movement of water from gaseous to liquid states through various water compartments such as surface waters, soil, and living organisms -heat from the sun causes water to evaporate from surface waters and land surfaces -SURFACE WATER: any body of water found above ground such as oceans, rivers, and lakes -TRANSPIRATION: the loss of water vapour from plants – plant roots pull up water from the soil and then release some in the atmosphere -EVAPORATION: the conversion of water from a liquid state to a gaseous state -the combination of transpiration and evaporation is EVAPOTRANSPIRATION -oceans are 97% of total global water – the other 3% is freshwater – of this freshwater, 87% are trapped in glaciers and ice caps, and the other 12% and 1% are from groundwater and surface water respectively – of the 1% of surface water and other freshwater, 52% are lakes, 38% is soil moisture, 1% is water in living organisms, 1% is rivers, and 8% is the atmospheric water vapour -CONDENSATION: conversion of water from a gaseous state (water vapour) to a liquid state – which is cloud formation -PRECIPITATION: rain, snow, sleet, or any form of water falling from the atmosphere -almost all precipitation ends up falling on the oceans, and a tiny remainder fall on land -GROUNDWATER: water found underground in aquifers -WATER SCARCITY: not having access to enough clean water LIKE COMMUNITIES AROUND THE WORLD, CALIFORNIA DEPENDS ON MANY SOURCES OF WATER -AQUIFER: an underground, permeable region of soil or rock that is saturated with water -INFILTERATION: the process of water soaking into the ground -plant roots take up some of the water along the way to the aquifer, but much of it continues to move downward, filling every available space in the aquifer – as the water trickles down, it becomes naturally filtered by rocks and soil, which trap bacteria and other contaminants as the water passes by -WATER TABLE: the uppermost water level of the saturated zone of an aquifer – rises and falls due to seasonal weather changes -aquifers remain dependable sources of water only as long as removal rates don’t exceed replenishment rates -biggest user of water in Canada is agriculture (70%) -anything that
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