Foods and Nutrition 1021 Chapter 5: Chapter 5- The Lipids- Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, & Sterols

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Western University
Foods and Nutrition
Foods and Nutrition 1021
Jennifer Broxterman

Chapter 5: The Lipids Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, Sterols Introduction to Lipids Lipids: Organic compounds o Soluble in organic solvents o Not soluble in water o Most are a mixture of SAFA (saturated: long and straight), MUFA (monounsaturated, one single point of unsaturation, represented by a double bond), PUFA (polyunsaturated, at least 2 points of unsaturation, double bonds) Fats: lipids that are solid at room temperature Oils: lipids that are liquid at room temperature Three classes of lipids in food the human body o Triglycerides Triacylglycerols Chief form of fat in foods human body (95) 3 units of fatty acids attached to 1 unit of glycerol Fatty acids differ in chain length in degree of saturation o Phospholipids o Sterols Types of Fat and Our Diet The good, PUFA, MUFA The bad, saturated fats The ugly, commercial processed trans fat Triglycerides MUFA (Monounsaturated FA) o Contain 1 point of unsaturation (double bond) o May help to lower LDL (lousy) cholesterol o Does not lower HDL (healthy) cholesterol o Fairly resistant to damaging oxygen o Ex. Canola oil, olive oil, and peanut oil PUFA (Polyunsaturated FA) o At least 2 points of unsaturation o Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs): Omega3 (linolenic acid): used to make EPA DHS, vulnerable to oxidization free radical formation (dont do well at high heat) and reduce tendency for blood to clot, lowers blood pressure, increases HDL ALA (Plant sources): oils, nuts seeds, soybeans, ground flaxseed, chia seeds, hemp hearts EPADHA (Animal sources): human milk, fatty coldwater fish (tuna, salmon, trout, sardines)
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