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Foods and Nutrition
Foods and Nutrition 1021

Food and Nutrition- Chapter’s 1-4 Chapter 1- Food Choices and Human Health Nutrition- Study of nutrients and other biologically relative compounds in foods and in the body; behaviour related to food. Nutrients- Compounds of food that are indisputable to the body’s function Macronutrients- (energy yielding) - Starch - Fats - Protein Micronutrients - Water - Vitamins - Minerals * Alcohol provides calories but is not a nutrients Essential Nutrients - Cannot be synthesized - Must be obtained from food - All Vitamins - All Minerals - Some parts of proteins - Water Organic Nutrients- Contains carbon K calorie- Energy needed to raise 1 litre (Kg) of water 1 degree Celsius Calories per gram- Carbs: 1g/ 4cal Fat: 1g/ 9cal Protein: 1g/ 4cal Alcohol: 1g/ 7cal Nutrient Density- Nutrients provided per calorie of food Health- Only smoking and drinking have more of an impact on your health than diet Adequacy- Enough of everything essential Balance- Not from only one nutrient rich group Calorie Control- Energy for weight control Moderation- A little from now and then Variety- Day to day different foods Science of nutrition- Advances made with scientific method Ex. Pellagra: diet, cured by diet, niacin (vitamin B3 deficiency) Epidemiology and Observation Studies Epidemiology- The study disease in population Observation- No intervention, observe relationship between diet and health, reveal correlation Intervention Study- Researcher intervenes to change component of subject’s diet/ lifestyle Case study- Case- control study- compare Cohort study- Monitoring group over time Laboratory Studies- Animals or cell cultures, pinpoint nutrition to a specific tissue, cell, genetic level Blood Glucose Control -Various filters delay nutrient transfer - Slowed glucose absorption prevents blood sugar spikes - Lower glycemic index foods Bread Refined- Increased parts of product removed (chaff, bran, germ) leaving endosperm Enriched- Addition of nutrients back to a food that were lost during refining Fortified- Nutrients that were never in a food were added Whole-grain- Refers to grain-milled in its entirety all but the husk, not refined Digestion of Carbohydrate Mouth- salivary amylase converts starch to maltose Stomach- Salivary amylase denatured by stomach pH Small intestine- Pancreas amylase breaks starch into maltose - Maltose, lactose and sucrose make disaccharides into monosaccharide’s - Monosaccharide’s are absorbed into blood, and sent to the liver Liver-All monosaccharaides are converted into glucose or other products Colon- Fibre fermented by bacteria to get short chain of fatty acids Lactose Intolerance - Deficiency in lactose enzyme - Symptoms: nausea, bloating, gas, diarrhea - The most lactose ingested the worse symptoms Glucose in the body Insulin- Tells sugar in blood to be converted to storage (glycogen) Glucagon- Stimulates storage of glycogen to become glucose - Also epinephrine the stress response hormone Glucose to Energy- Cellular respiration - Products enter Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain to become energy - Or stored as fat Excess glucose- Glycogen is produced until stores fully, the converted into fat Glycemic Index (GI)- A ranking of foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose relative to a standard such as glucose or white bread - Low (55 or less), Medium (56-69), High (70 or more) Benefits of Glycemic Index- Control blood glucose, control cholesterol level, control appetite, lower risk of getting heart disease, lowers risk of type 2 diabetes Glycemic load= GI/100 x grams of carbohydrate - Takes into account the amount of available carbohydrates Issues of Glycemic Index - Buttered bread has lower GI - Many factors influence it - Varies person to person - Dependent on how foods are combined Diabetes- A Chronic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels that leads to many complications - Type 2 prevalence greatly increasing - Jumped 69% from 1995-2005 - 8.8% of Ontarians Type 1- 10%, Persons own immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas, that synthesize the hormone insulin Type 2- 90%, Pancreas makes plenty of insulin. But the body’s cells resist insulin’s action - Older people - Muscles, liver, and adipose tissue become insulin resistant - Diet, body weight and genetics - Insulin resistant, prediabetes, diabetes - More insulin needed to do the job - Obesity Symptoms -Thirst, excessive urination, dehydration, fatigue, hyperglycemia (blood glucose concentration below normal), glucose in urine, cravings for sweets, blurred vision, weight loss with nausea, itching, drowsiness, and slow healing. Postprandial Hypoglycemia (reactive hypoglycemia) An unusual drop in blood glucose that follows a meal and is accompanied by symptoms such as anxiety, rapid heartbeat, and sweating. - Rare condition, found in very lean people or people who just lost a bunch of weight Fasting Hypoglycemia- Hypoglycemia that occurs after 8-14 hours of fasting Chapter 2- Nutrition food standards and Guides Eating Well Yes- Essential nutrients, fibre, phytochemicals, energy and exercise No- Excess fats, sugars, and salts Canadian Food Guide - Eat enough vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients - Reduce risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, and osteoporosis - Overall health and vitality Discretionary Calories= Y-X, Y>X X Calories to get all nutrients Y Calories to maintain weight - Consume anything good or bad to get them but no excess - Omit if you wish to loose weight Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)- Recommendation for total energy, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, and water - Developed in US and Canada - Based on healthy population - Lifestyle and sex specific Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)- The average daily nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group; used in nutrition research and policymaking and is the basis upon RDA values are set - Meets the needs of 50% of population (policymaking/ adequacy studies) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)- Nutrient intake goals for individuals; the recommended average daily nutrient intake level based in intakes of healthy people (observed or experimentally derived) in a particular life style and gender group and assumed to be adequate - Set whenever scientific data are insufficient to allow establishment of an RDA value - Meets the needs of 97-98% of population (individual nutrient goal) Upper Limit (UL)- The highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of toxicity to almost all healthily individuals of a particular life stage and gender group. Usual intake above this level may place an individual at risk of illness from nutrient toxicity. Adequate Intake (AI)- Nutrient intake goals for individuals Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)- Values for carbohydrates, fat and proteins expressed as percentages of total caloric intake Estimated Energy Requirements (EER)- Average energy intake predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of certain age, weight, and level of physical activity consistent with good health Food Label Must Contain - Common name of product - Name and address of manufacturer - Ingredient List - Nutrition facts panel (except fresh meat, veggies, alcohol) Daily Values - Less than 5% is a little - More than 15% is a lot - Good for comparing foods - Based on 2000 calorie diet - Needs of average person Label Claims 1. Nutrient Content Descriptors Ex. less salt, low fat, high iron 2. Diet- Related Health Claims a) K, Na, and reduce the risk of high blood pressure b) Calcium, Vitamin D, regular physical activity, and reduce risk of osteoporosis c) Saturated and Trans fats and reduce the risk of heart disease d) Veggies/ Fruit and reduce the risk of some cancers 3. Biological Role Claim Ex. Protein helps with tissue repair 4. General Health Claim - Not for profit of cooperation - Blue menu or health check Phytochemicals- Substance found in foods that are not essential nutrients, but may have health promoting properties -Serve a function in plants ex. Capsaicin makes peppers spicy, some for colour etc. Can: -Act as an antioxidant -Mimic hormone -Inhibit cell division - Protect against DNA damage Phytochemical Food Benefit Carotene, B Carotene Carrots, fruit
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