Chapter 1 Textbook Review.docx

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Department
Foods and Nutrition
Course
Foods and Nutrition 1021
Professor
Anita Cramp
Semester
Fall

Description
Food and Nutrition Textbook Review Chapter 1 Food: medically, any substance that the body can take in and assimilate that will enable it to stay alive and to grow; the carrier of nourishment; socially, a more limited number of such substances defines as acceptable by each culture. The food you eat today becomes part of “you” tomorrow so it is important to make healthy choices Nutrition: the study of the nutrients and other biologically active compounds in foods and in the body; sometimes also the study of human behaviours related to food. Nutrition is a science Diet: the foods and beverages a person usually eats and drinks Nutrients: components of food that is indispensable to the body’s functioning. They provide energy, serve as building material, help maintain or repair body parts and support growth. The nutrients include water, carbohydrates, proteins, fat, vitamins and minerals. If foods you eat provide too little or too much of any nutrient, it may cause severe disease effects farther down in your life Malnutrition: any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients. Nutrient or energy deficiencies are classed as forms of undernutrition; nutrient or energy excesses are classed as forms as over nutrition Chronic Disease: long duration degenerative diseases characterized by deterioration of the body organs. Examples: heart disease, cancer and diabetes. 3 out of 4 leading causes of death can be linked to bad nutrition (major cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases). These diseases cannot be prevented by a good diet alone but it may help reduce your chances of getting them. Choice of diet influences long-term health within range by genetic inheritance. Nutrition has little influence on some diseases but strongly affects others. Genome: the full complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell. The study of genomes is genomics DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule that encodes genetic information in its structure Genes: units of a cell’s inheritance; made of the chemical DNA. Each gene directs the making of one or more proteins, which perform important tasks in the body Nutritional genomics: the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the activities of nutrients. Also called molecular nutrition or nutrigenomics. Holds great promise for advances in nutrition science Other Lifestyle Choices: besides food personal life choices such as staying physically active or using tobacco or alcohol also affect health for better or worse Energy: the capacity to do work. Food = chemical energy that can be converted to mechanical, electrical, heat etc. Food energy is measured in calories Organic: carbon containing. Includes carb, fat, protein and vitamins. Organic compounds include only those made by living things (exclude carbon dioxide and carbon salts) Energy-Yielding Nutrients: the nutrients the body can use for energy(stored in the carbon- carbon bonds). They may also supply building blocks for body structure. Important EYN: carbs, and fats. Protein is also a EYN but it also provides materials that form structures and working body tissues. Alcohol yields energy but is NOT a nutrient, it is a toxin Essential Nutrients: the nutrients the body cannot make for itself (or cannot make fast enough) from other raw materials; nutrients that must be obtained from food to prevent deficiencies. Found in the 6 classes of nutrients: Carb, proteins (not full discovered and explained until the mid-40s), fats, water, vitamins, and minerals. Carbs, proteins and fats are EYN, vitamins (the first vitamin was discovered in 1897 and last one in 1948) and minerals provide no energy per se but serve as parts of body structures (i.e calcium in bones) and act as regulators (assist in body processes like digesting, moving muscles, disposing waste, growing tissues, healing wounds and obtaining energy from carbs, proteins and fats), water is an important part of the body and must be continuously be replaces as it is lost. Calories: unit of energy. Unit used to measure the energy in food is a kilocalorie (kcalorie or Calorie); it is the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram (a litre) of water 1 degree Celsius. Gram: units of weight. Food and nutrient quantities are often measured in grams. - Carbs 4 calories/gram - Proteins 4 calories/ gram - Fat 9 calories/gram - Alcohol 7 calories/gram Dietary Supplements: pills, liquids or powers that contain purified nutrients or other ingredients. Not as good as food. Example stomach and intestines are dynamic and living organs that change and have a response to the foods they receive (i.e. sight, aroma, taste) and when fed through vein or just supplements they weaken and grow smaller which can lead to lower body’s defences against certain infections. Also effect hormones and hormone levels that send messages to brain that tell you you’re full Elemental Diets: diets composed of purified ingredients of known chemical composition; intended to supply all essential nutrients to people who cannot eat. Essential for sick people but do not support optimal growth and health and can lead to medical complications Non-nutrients: compounds other than the 6 nutrients that are present in foods and have biological activity in the body Phytochemicals: give food their tastes, aromas, colours and other characteristics. Non-nutrient compounds in plants-derived foods that have biological activity in the body Basic foods: whole foods, basis for nutritious diet Enriched/ fortified foods: nutrients are added; highly nutritious or less nutritious - Enriched: have to put in nutrients that were already there - Fortified: adding in something that was never there to begin with Fast foods: available within minutes of order, may not meet people’s nutrient needs, depending on the selections made and on the energy allowances and nutrient needs of the eaters Functional foods: contain nutrients and non-nutrients that may protect the body from disease Natural Foods: used to imply wholesomeness Nutraceutical: food product (in pill form) with medicinal effect Organic foods: grown without pesticides or fertilizers; also ALL FOODS! Partitioned foods: parts of whole foods, e.g. corn oil; provide few nutrients Processed foods: milled, cooked, with additives Staple foods: eaten frequently or daily, e.g. rice in A
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