Chapter 4 Textbook Review
Carbohydrates: compounds composed of single or multiple sugars. The name means "carbon
and water," and a chemical shorthand for carbohydrate is CHO, signifying carbon (C), hydrogen
(H), and oxygen (O).
Complex Carbohydrates: long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fibre; also
Simple Carbohydrates: sugars, including both single sugar units and linked pairs of sugar
units. The basic sugar unit is a molecule containing six carbon atoms, together with oxygen and
Photosynthesis: the process by which green plants make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide
and water using the green pigment chlorophyll to capture the sun's energy
Chlorophyll: the green pigment of plants that captures energy from sunlight for use in
Sugars: simple carbohydrates, that is, molecules of either single sugar units or pairs of those
sugar units bonded together. By common usage, sugar most often refers to sucrose.
Glucose: a single sugar used in both plant and animal tissues for energy; sometimes known as
blood sugar or dextrose.
Monosaccharides: single sugar units
Disaccharides: pairs of single sugars linked together
Fructose: a monosaccharide; sometimes known as fruit sugar
Galactose: a monosaccharide; part of the disaccharide lactose (milk sugar).
Lactose: a disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose; sometimes known as milk sugar
Maltose: a disaccharide composed of two glucose units; sometimes known as malt sugar.
Sucrose: a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose; sometimes known as table, beet,
or cane sugar and often simply sugar.
Polysaccharides: another term for complex carbohydrates; compounds composed of long
strands of glucose units linked together
Starch: a plant polysaccharide composed of glucose. After cooking, starch is highly digestible
by human beings; raw starch often resists digestion.
Granules: small grains. Starch granules are packages of starch molecules. Various plant
species make starch granules of varying shapes. Glycogen: a highly branched polysaccharide composed of glucose that is made and stored by
the liver and muscle tissues of human beings and animals as a storage form of glucose.
Glycogen is not a significant food source of carbohydrate and is not counted as one of the
complex carbohydrates in foods.
Fibre: the indigestible parts of plant foods, largely nonstarch polysaccharides that are not
digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by resident bacteria of the
colon. Fibres include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, mucilages, and the
- Soluble Fibres: food components that readily dissolve in water and often impart gummy
or gel-like characteristics to foods. An example is pectin from fruit, which is used to
thicken jellies. Soluble fibres are indigestible by human enzymes but may be broken
down to absorbable products by bacteria in the digestive tract.
- Viscous: having a sticky, gummy, or gel-like consistency that flows relatively slowly.
- Insoluble Fibres: the tough, fibrous structures of fruit, vegetables, and grains;
indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water.
Hemorrhoids: swollen, hardened (varicose) veins in the rectum, usually caused by the
pressure resulting from constipation.
Appendicitis: inflammation and/or infection of the appendix, a sac protruding from the intestine.
Diverticula: sacs or pouches that balloon out of the intestinal wall, caused by weakening of the
muscle layers that encase the intestine.
Butyrate: a small fat fragment produced by the fermenting action of bacteria on viscous, soluble
fibres; the preferred energy source for the colon cells.
Bran: the protective fibrous coating around a grain; the chief fibre donator of a grain.
Brown bread: bread containing ingredients such as molasses that lend a brown colour; may be
made with any kind of flour, including white flour.
Endosperm: the bulk of the edible part of a grain, the starchy part.
Enriched: the addition of nutrients back to a food that may have been lost during processing,
for example, the addition of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron to bleached wheat flour. Thus,
you may see the term enriched on certain types of bread or cereals.
Fortified: the addition of nutrients to foods that did not contain them initially, for example,
orange juice to which calcium was added. Thus, you may see the term fortified on such
Germ: the nutrient-rich inner part of a grain.
Husk: the outer, inedible part of a grain. Refined: refers to the process by which the coarse parts of food products are removed. For
example, the refining of wheat into flour involves removing three of the four parts of the kernel—
the chaff, the bran, and the germ—leaving only the endosperm, composed mainly of starch and
a little protein.
Stone ground: refers to a milling process using limestone to grind any grain, including refined
grains, into flour.
Unbleached flour: a beige-coloured endosperm flour with texture and nutritive qualities that
approximate those of regular white flour.
Wheat flour: any flour made from wheat, including white flour.
White flour: an endosperm flour that has been refined and bleached for maximum softness and
Whole grain: refers to a grain milled in its entirety (all but the husk), not refined.
Whole-wheat flour: flour made from whole-wheat kernels; a whole-grain flour.
Chelating Agents: molecules that attract or bind with other molecules and are therefore useful
in either prev