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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Textbook Review

5 Pages

Foods and Nutrition
Course Code
Foods and Nutrition 1021
Anita Cramp

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Chapter 3 Cells: the smallest units in which independent life can exist. All living things are single cells or organisms made of cells. Need water and nutrients to survive Enzyme: any of the great working proteins that speed up specific chemical reaction, such as breaking the bonds of a nutrient, without undergoing change themselves. Fat cells: cells that specialize in the storage of fat and form the fat tissue. Fat cells also produce enzymes that metabolize fat and hormones involved in appetite and energy balance Cell: each cell contains a complete set of genes but different ones are active in different types of cells. Genes affect the body’s handling of nutrients Nutritional Genomics: the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the activities of nutrients. Also called molecular nutrition or nutrigenomics Tissues: systems of cells working together to perform specialized tasks. Ex muscles, nerves, blood Organs: discrete structural units made of tissues that perform specific jobs. Ex the heart Body system: a group of related organs that work together to perform a function ex. Circulatory system Lymph: the fluid that moves from the bloodstream into tissue spaces and then travels in it own vessel, which eventually drain back into the bloodstream Blood: the fluid of the cardiovascular system; composed of water, red and white blood cells, other formed particles, nutrients, oxygen and other constituents Veins: blood vessels that carry blood, with the carbon dioxide it has collected, from the tissues back to the heart Arteries: blood vessels that carry blood containing fresh oxygen supplies to from the heart to the tissues Capillaries: minute, weblike blood vessels that connect arteries to veins amd permit transfer of materials between blood and tissues Plasma: the cell-free fluid part of blood and lymph Extra-cellular fluid: fluid residing outside cells that transport materials to and from the cells Intracellular Fluid: fluid residing inside the cells that provides the medium for cellular reactions Lungs: the body’s organs of gas exchange. Blood circulating through the lungs releases its carbon dioxide and picks up fresh oxygen to carry to the tissues Intestine: the body’s long tubular organ of digestions and the sites of nutrients Liver: a large, lobed organ that lies just under the ribs. It filters the blood, removes and processes nutrients, manufactures materials for export to other parts of the body, destroys toxins or stores them to keep them out of the circulation, and excretes fat-soluble waste products into the small intestine Kidneys: a pair of organs that filter wastes from the blood, makes urine and release it to the bladder for excretion from the body Hormones: chemicals that are secreted by the glands into the blood in response to conditions in the body that require regulation. These chemicals serve as messengers, acting on other organs to maintain constant conditions Pancreas: an organ with 2 functions; endocrine function (the making of hormones) and exocrine function (making of digestive enzymes) Insulin: a hormone from the pancreas that helps glucose enter the cells from the blood Glucagon: a hormone from the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream when blood glucose concentration dips Cortex: the outermost layer of something. The brain’s cortex is the part of the brain where conscious thought takes place Hypothalamus: a part of the brain that senses a variety of conditions in the blood such as temperature, glucose and salt. It signals other parts of the brain or body to adjust those conditions Flight-or-fight response: the body’s instinctive hormone- an nerve-mediated reaction to danger. Neurotransmitters: chemicals that are released at the end of a nerve cell when a nerve impulses arrives there. Diffuse across the gap to the next cell Epinephrine: the major hormone that elicits the stress response Norepinephrine: a compound related to epinephrine that helps elicit the stress response Metabolism: sum of physical and chemical changes taking place in living cells Microbes (micro-organisms): bacteria, viruses or other organisms invisible to the naked eye which can cause diseases Antigen: a microbe or substance that is foreign to the body Immune System: system of tissues and organs that defend the body against antigens, foreign materials that have gotten into the body Lymphocytes: white blood cells that help in immune response; b-cells and t-cells Phagocytes: white blood cells that ingest and destroy antigens. This process is called phagocytosis T-cells: attack antigens; T refers to the thalamus gland where the T-c
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