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Geography 1100

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Western University
Geography 1100
Susan Knabe

Economic Geography Economic geography - is the study of how people earn their living - how livelihood systems vary by area how economic activities are spatially interrelated and linked - economic geographers seek consistencies, they attempt to develop generalizations that will aid in the comprehension of the maze of economic variations characterizing human existence - Heavy industry are things like iron and steel factoring – big noisy dirty , LARGE scale equipment - Light industry is often described as environmental, Nicely landscape, two or three low raise building. Looks like a small office building. THE CALSSICALIFICATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AND ECONOMIES - livelihood patterns is made more difficult by five major environmental and cultural realties - Cultural considerations  is within the bounds of the environmentally possible economic or production decision  e.g. cultural based food preferences rather than environmental limitation may dictate the choice of crops or livestock - Technological development  a culture will effect its recognition of resources or its ability to exploit them  preindustrial societies do not know of, or need, iron ore or coal deposits that may underlie their hunting gathering or gardening grounds - Political decisions  may encourage or discourage through subsidies, protective tariffs or production restrictions - Economic factors  whether that demand is expressed through a free market mechanism, through government intervention or through consumption requirements of a single family producing for its own needs. Categories of Activity Primary activities - are those that harvest of extract some-thing from the earth - they are at the beginning of the production cycle, where humans are in closest contact with the resources and potentials of the environment - involves basic foodstuffs and raw materials production - Harvesting or extracting  hunting and gathering, grazing agriculture, fishing forestry and mining and quarrying Secondary activities - are those that add value to materials by changing their form or combining them into more useful and therefore more valuable, commodities - manufacturing and processing industries are included - Also power production and construction industry - Manufacturing and processing Tertiary activities - consist of those business and labor specializations that provide services to the primary and secondary sectors and goods and services to the general community and to the individual Quaternary activity - which is composed entirely of services rendered by white collar professionals working in education, governments, managements, information processing and research - a sub division of these management functions quinary activities – is distinguished to recognize high level decision making roles in all types of large organization public or private They help us see an underlying structure to the nearly infinite variety of things people do to earn a living and to sustain themselves Types of economic systems - national economies in the early 21 century fall into one of the three major types of system: subsistence commercial or planned - none of these economic systems is or has been “pure” Subsistence economy - good and services are created for the use of the producers and their kinship groups - therefore, there is little exchange of goods and only limited need for market Market (commercial) economies - that have become dominant in nearly all part of the world, producers or their agents in theory freely market their goods and services, the laws of supply and demand determine price and quantity Planned Economies - associated with communist-controlled societies, producers or their agents dispose of goods and services through governmental agencies that control both supply and price - the quantities produced and the locational [patterns of production are tightly programed by central planning departments - with a few expectations such as Cuba and North Korea, planned economies no longer exist in their classical form - they have been modified of dismantled in favor of free market structures  A farmer in India may produce rice and vegetables primarily for the family’s consumption but also save some of the produce to sell.  Also members of the family may market cloth or other sales, the Indian peasant is able to buy among other things for the family.  He is a member of at least two systems; subsistence and commercial Subsistence Agriculture - system involves nearly total self-sufficiency on the part of its members - almost total self sufficiency in agricultural products - you only produce what you need, nothing extra for sell - characteristics: small scale, minimal production for exchange ,labour intensive, family labour, low capital investment - varied crops/animals  they don’t have animals because they have to feed them.  They might have goats or chicken, goats will eat anything Two Types 1)Extensive Subsistence Agriculture - involves large areas of land and minimal labor input per hectare - Nomadic Herding; the wandering but controlled movement of livestock solely depend on natural forage - Don’t stay at one area for more than two weeks - They have animals that provide a variety of products; Milk, cheese, yogurt and meat for food; Hair, wool and skins for clothing - Found in all of the warm moist, low-latitude areas of the world. Large areas/minimal Labour - low production/hectare - low population density - Shifting Cultivation **** – aka swidden or slash-and- burn agriculture – most common in moist tropical areas – small plots – the farmers hack down the natural vegetation and burn the cuttings, which puts nutrients into the soil. Then they plant such crops as maize (corn), millet, rice, manioc or cassava, yams and sugarcane – ash releases nutrients back to the soil – land is cropped for 2-5 years - until yields decline – plot is abandoned and natural vegetation allowed to regenerate – After 25 years you return and reuse the land again for 2-5 years – Requirements for shifting cultivation: 1) Large land area 2) Low population density - as traditionally practiced and under traditional conditions - sustainable 2) Intensive Subsistence Agriculture - Stays in on place - 45% of the world’s people are engaged in this no longer fully applicable to a changing way of life and economy in which the distinction between subsistence and commercial - high population density - ancient form of cultivation - small plots – 1-2 acres - high application of labor - family labor – no hired labor - rudimentary tools - relatively high yield/hectare - few, if any, draft animals - dominant crops:  1) rice in wet areas  2) wheat, millet, legumes, yams, etc. - sometimes diet augmented by leafy vegetables, bananas, other fruit, some poultry or dairy products Expanding Crop Production - two paths to promoting increased food production are apparent: 1) expand the land area under Commercial Grain Farming - characteristics:  purpose is commercial, you will consume some of the product, but the goal is to take the product from the farm sell it and that is what they live off  large capital investment, they may be a large land involve.  highly mechanized, depending on the type of farm. If you have a diary farm, a lot is invested in the equipment  increasingly high tech. GPS, computer programs are used not to keep up on what is feed to the livestock ,but the soil in the field  industrialization, looks like a factory. BIG – the idea behind it is that it only happen when the agricultural resources are good. They want a good return back o business approach, the family farm traditional is known as the way of life. The farmer can give up some income in exchange of the way of life. Being your own doors. Working out doors and working with animals. Whatever gives you happiness rather than trying to squeeze every dollar from that farm o e.g. vertical integration, involves making the process of producing food in an assembly line. The farmer always was independent. They grew what they felt their land was good for, what they knew and what the market was good for. They grew specific crops. With Vertical Integration becomes a line. Like Loblaw’s they want fresh but best price. They go to the farmer talk to him and the farmer through the contract they grow what Loblaw’s want.  crop rotation and fertilizer (mostly chemical) to maintain soil fertility The model of Agricultural Location - Van Thunen was a German state owner, a farmer - observed the lands of apparently identical physical properties were used for different agricultural purposes. - Around each major urban market center, he noted, developed a set of concentric rings of different farm products - based on his personal experiences and records from his estate in North Germany - observed that agricultural land of the same quality supported varied land uses - in looking for an explanation he examined the role of agriculture prices and distance from the market - his model focused on these variables - he modified by introducing ideas of differential transport costs, variation in topography or soil fertility, or changes in commodity demand and market price - assumptions 1) isolated state; no import or export. A states that stands on its had 2) uniform or isotropic plain; means that the land everywhere is the same, no river no mountain. It’s a flat uniform plain. The physical environment is not different 3) one central market 4) goal for every farmer is to maximum their profit 5) production cost uniform; it means that whatever isolated state you are, the production can verify depending on the crop but the cost to make it will always be the same 6) one mode of transport. Everyone uses the same method of transportation 7) equal accessibility; means straight line travel. - Variables: (1) Transport Cost: o proportional to distance from market o also, weight, bulk, perishability of the product (2) Market Price of Product o the dollar of value you get at the market price - spatial pattern of agriculture determined by interplay of these two variables - Result?  a series of concentric circular zones centered on the market, each with its own agricultural product  concentric means they have the same central zones  crops yielding a higher/acre profit will be closer to market; the crops that can over the highest value to capture that location will get that  lower/acre profit = farther away ; if it comes with the lower, it has to settle for a location further away from the market  maximum distance from market at which a given product can be produced varies inversely with difficulty in transporting it; that means you are going to use up your profit much quickly. Von Thunen’s model - Zone 1 - milk, small fruits and vegetables - Zone 2 – silviculture; tree farming, foresting  wood was very important - Zone 3, 4, 5 - commercial crop and livestock farming - Zone 6 - livestock, e.g. extensive farming Transport Gradients and Agricultural Zones(Page 32) Intensive Commercial Agriculture - is now usually understand to refer specifically to the production of crops that give high yields and high market value per unit of land - these include fruits, vegetables and dairy products which are highly perishable, as well as some “factory farm” production of livestock Extensive Commercial Agriculture - is typified by large wheat farms and livestock ranching - large scale wheat farming requires sizeable capital inputs for planting and harvesting machinery, but the inputs per unit for land are low; wheat farms are very large. - Livestock ranching differ significantly from livestock-grain farming and by its commercial orientation and distribution from the nomadism it superficially resembles Special crops - Promomity to the market does not guarantee the intensive production of high-value crops, should terrain or climatic circumstance hinder it - two special cases are agriculture n Mediterranean climates  Mediterranean agriculture is a specialized farming economy, however is known for grapes, olives oranges, figs, vegetables and similar commodities  These crops need warm temperatures all year round and a great deal sunshine in the summer - Plantation is the introduction of foreign element (investment, management, and marketing) into an indigenous culture and economy often employing an introduced alien labor force. OTHER PRIMARY ACTIVITIES Fishing - fish and shellfish account for only about 15% of all human animal protein consumption, developing countries such as eastern and southeastern Asia, Africa, and part of Latin American depend on fish as their primary source of protein - Maximum sustainable yield of a resource is the largest volume or rate of use that will not impart its ability to be renewed or to maintain the same future productivity. For fishing the level is marked by a catch of harvest equal to the net growth of the replacement stock  The annual fish supply comes from three sources 1. the Inland catch, from ponds, latest and rivers 2. Fish farming, where fish are produced in a controlled and contained environment 3. The marine catch, all wild fish harvested in coastal waters or on the high seas - Fish capture (catch) is responsible for two thirds of the total annual fish harvest. - Inland water supply less than 10% of the catch - Fish farming, both inland and marine accounts for about 1/3 of total global production - Most of that marine capture is made in coastal wetlands, estuaries and the relatively shallow coastal waters above the continental shelf. Overfishing and the pollution of costal waters have seriously endangered the supplies of traditional and desirable food species  The UN reports that all 17 of the worlds’ major oceanic fishing areas are being fished at or beyond capacity; 13 are in decline.  In 1993 Canada shut down its cod industry to allow stocks to recover and U.S authorities report that 67 North American species are overfished and 61 harvested to capacity - over fishing is partly the results of the accepted view that the world’s oceans are common property a resource open to any one’s use, with no one responsible for its maintenance protection or improvement Aquaculture aka fish farming - is one approach to increase fish supply - the breeding of fish in freshwater ponds lakes and canals or in fenced- off costal bays and estuaries or enclosures -fishing farming has long been practiced in Asia, where fish are major source of protein, but now takes place on every continent Forestry - Forests, like fish are heavily exploited renewable resources - even after millennia of land clearance for agriculture and more recently commercial lumbering cattle ranching and fuel wood gathering forests still cover nearly a their of the world’s land area. Mining and Quarrying - the extractive industries – mining and drilling for nonrenewable mineral wealth—emerged only when cultural advancement and economic necessity made possible a broader understand of the earth’s understanding - now those extractive industries provide the raw material and energy base for the way of life experienced by people in the advanced economies and are the basis for an important part of the international trade connecting the developed and developing countries of the world - transportation cost play a major role in determining where low-value minerals will be mined. - the production of other minerals – especially metallic minerals such as copper, lead and iron ore—is affected by a balance of three forces: the quantity available, the richness of the ore and the distance to markets. Economic Rent (Bid Rent) - amount that a farmer can afford to pay for the use of a particular piece of land - the difference between the market price and the cost of production plus transportation cost is what money you have available to offer for the economic rent - competitive bidding R = Y (m-c) – Ytd SHE WILL GIVE THIS ON THE EXAM BUT NEED TO KNOW WHAT IT STANDS - where :  R = bid rent/unit of land  Y = yield/unit of land  m = market price/unit of product  c = production cost/unit of product  t = transportation rate/unit of product  d = distance from market Von Thunen Example Yield Market pr. Prod. C. Trans. R. Corn 50 $1.00 $ .25 $ .05 Wheat 75 $ .75 $ .20 $ .05 Potatoes 60 $ .50 $ .15 $ .02 Oats 70 $ .40 $ .15 $ .05 - First do the R=Y(m-c) – Ytd. - R= 50 ($1.00-$O.25) - forget the Ytd for now. Giving the distance 0  R= $37.50 - than give the distance a 1 so Ytd = 50x0.5x1 = 2.50 - Take 37.50 % 2.50= 15Km which is the distance To plot the graph: Y-intercept X-intercept Corn: $37.50 15 km Wheat: $41.25 11 km Potatoes: $21.00 17.5 km Oats: $17.50 5 km In what order ware the crops grown from the market place - Must draw the GRAPH - ANSWER IS: Wheat, corn, potatoes and the oats won’t be grown. When you take the 37.50 – 25.00 = 12.50 means how much Bid rent you have Green Revolution - have been 4 1) 1500 - 1800 – global spread of crops dominant today 2) 1850 - 1950 – Europe and North America – scientific principles – fertilizer, irrigation, mechanization, pest control 3) since WWII – HDC’s – higher yielding varieties – more pest and disease resistant 4) since 1967 – #2 and #3 applied to tropical climates – points to note (continued)  2) increased yields  3) shorter time to mature  4) rice, wheat, maize Socio-Economic repercussions of the Green Revolution 1) new varieties accessible only to those who can afford them  the seed was expensive. The seed company were in for profit 2)therefore better off farmers reap benefits  the farmer who were not doing better, looked at the seed. To get the seed they would take a loan on the land to get enough money for the seed but not enough to get the other stuff.  The poor framer can not pay of the loan so the rich farmer end up buying the land 3) gap between rich and poor farmers only widen - the main point was to increase food supply but they wanted to narrow the gap between the farms. Narrow the wealth gap. Other Negative Impacts: 1) reduction in protein supply in some areas due to poisoning of fish raised in flooded rice paddies (minor except on local level) 2) most practical approaches to agricultural improvement sometimes overlooked 3) spreading monocultures  is referring to one crop everywhere  one crop dominates  the problem is you risk being whipped out literally by diseases  when you have different crops 4) declining gene pool 5) chemical race with nature  if you spare a population of insect .. there will be a few that will survive  intensive spraying - mutant and resistant forms 6) growing concentration of land in the hands of a few 7) loss of self sufficiency in food crops India: doubled total food production - per capita food production increased 18% - 1960’s - 90% of increase in world grain production attributed to Green Revolution techniques - 1970’s - 70% - 1980’s - 80% - 1990’s - at least 80% - But…These successes have only bought us more time to deal with bigger problems like inequitable distribution of land and food, and rapidly growing populations, and poverty  the idea is increasing our food production is buying us time not solving the problem, we have not really investing the real problem Industrial Location Theory - when market principles are controlling, entrepreneurs seek to maximize profits by locating manufacturing activities at sites of lowest total input cost (and high revenue yields) - in order to access the advantages of one location over another, industrialists must evaluate the most important variable cost  they subdivide their total costs into categories and note how each cost will vary from place to place.  In different industries, transportation charges, labor rates, power costs, plant construction or operation expenses, the interest rate of money or the price of raw materials may be the major variable cost - in the economic world nothing remains constant because of a changing mix of input costs, production techniques and marketing activities, many initially profitable locations do not remain advantageous - Least-cost theory was proposed by Alfred weber sometimes called Weberian analysis.  It is based on industrial patterns and economic assessments seen as controlling during the later 19 and early 20 centuries  Weber explained the optimum location of a manufacturing establishment in terms of the minimization of three basic expenses; relative transport costs, labor costs and agglomeration costs - Agglomeration Costs refers to the clustering of productive activities and people mutual advantages. Such clustering is produces agglomeration economies through shared facilities and services - weber concluded that transport cost were the major consideration determining location - he noted however, if the variations in labor or agglomeration costs were sufficiently great, a location determined solely on the basis of transportation costs might not in fact, ne the optimum one. - treatise on industrial location published in 1909 - heavy industries - emphasized role of transportation assumptions: 1) a single homogeneous country  homogenous country means the wages will be the same everywhere 2) dealt with 1 product at a time  when trying to explain a location of a factory, he dealt with one product at a time 3) location of raw materials is known and stated 4) location of markets (e.g. points of consumption) is known and stated 5) labor is geographically fixed - wages are set 6) transportation costs are a function of weight and distance Scenario 1 - one market (B) - one source of raw material (A) - where does processing take place? A) ubiquitous raw material - is an element that is found everywhere - processing will occur a B - why? processing at B eliminates transportation costs B) no loss of weight of raw material or gain of weight by product during processing – processing will occur…… at B or A or anywhere in between – if you located your factory somewhere in the middle it will cost you more because you have to – why? there is no weight change therefore you will be moving the same weight whether in the form of raw material or finished product C) pure (localized raw material whose full weight enters into final product) raw material and ubiquitous raw material – processing will occur at the market a B – why? why transport a ubiquitous raw material anywhere D) a raw material that loses weight during processing is used – processing will occur at A , the raw materials – why? why transport material that will not enter into the final product Scenario II - one market (C), two sources of raw materials (A and B) A) raw materials are ubiquitous as before, at C B) pure raw materials are used at C C) different weight losing raw materials are used. location will be somewhere between A, B and C Raw material 3 will influence on the location Other locational considerations 1) Transportation - Water: - generally cheapest over long haul Rail: - cost rises somewhat more steeply over distance - stepwise increase Road: - costs rise fairly steeply - flexible - fairly low terminal costs Air: - most expensive -speed Footloose industries: -transportation costs are a small part of end price e.g. optical instruments Ubiquitous industries: - tied to market e.g. bakeries, soft drinks 2) Agglomeration economies - both cost-minimizing and profit-maximizing theories make provision for agglomeration the spatial concentration of people and activities for mutual benefit - both recognize that the areal grouping of industrial activities may produce benefits for individual firms that they could not experience insolation - Internal Economies of Scale is a specialization of manpower and equipment such as mass production - full employment of capital equipment - economies of massed reserves - he larger the operation, the smaller the % of its resources held, unproductively, here economies of large-scale purchasing - preferential terms from suppliers External economies, accrue in the form of saving from shared transport facilities and the like - also encouraged by newer manufacturing policies practiced by both older, established industries and by newer post-Fordist plants - Traditional Fordist industries required the on-site storage of large lots of materials and supplies ordered and delivered well in advanced of their actual need in production comparative advantage tells us that areas and countries can best improve their economies and living standards through specialization and trade. These benefits will follow if each area or county concentrates on the production of those items for which it has the greatest relative advantage over other areas or for which it has the least disadvantages and imports all other goods - by specializing in A you give up production of B - same for a region producing B - if there is free exchange , both places will gain by producing that item for which they have an advantage and by importing the other item Just-in-Time and Flexible Production - manufacturing in contrast seeks to reduce inventories through the production process by purchasing inputs for arrival just in time to use and producing output just in time to sell - JIT requires frequent ordering of small lots of good for precisely timed arrival and immediate deployment to the factory floor - it is one expression of a transition from mass production Fordism to more flexible production system - the flexibility is designed to allow producers to shift quickly and easily between different levels of output and importantly to move from one factory process or product to another as market demand dictates Comparative Advantage tells us that areas and countries can be improve their economies and living standards through specialization and trade  these benefits will follow if each area or country concentrates on the production of those items for which it has the greatest relative advantage over other areas or for which it has the least relative disadvantage and imports all other goods. Outsourcing producing parts or products aboard for domestic sale by American manufactures are no different from those resulting from successful competition by foreign companies or from industrial locational decisions favoring one section of the country over others Offshoring is the practice of either hiring foreign workers or commonly contracting with a foreign third-party service provider to take over and run particular business processes or operations, such as call centers or accounting, billing and similar non production “back office” aspects of manufacturing  it has become an increasingly standard cost-containment strategy reflecting the recent steep decline in communication costs, the ease of internet use, and the growing technical proficiency of foreign labor pools Transnational Corporation (TNCS) - private firms that have established branch operations in nations foreign to their headquarters’ country - they become an ever-more important driving force in the globalizing world pace economy - For example, in 2008 Wal-Mart stores had 2.1 million employees and annual revenue of $406 th billon. If Wal-Mart was a country it would be ranked the 26 largest economy in the world. Just ahead of Iran Greece, Denmark and Argentina Postindustrial economy - “Emerging economy, in the U.S. and a handful of other highly advanced countries, as traditional industry is overshadowed by a higher-technology productive complex dominated by services, information-related and managerial activities.” (DeBlij, 1998) - involves high-technology, white-collar, office-based activities - “footloose” activities in terms of traditional location theory - free to respond to other, non-economic locational forces  e.g. 1) nearby major university 2) close proximity to a cosmopolitan urban center 3) large local pool of skilled and semi-skilled labor 4) year-round pleasant weather and recreational activities 5) high quality nearby housing 6) local economic climate conducive to economic prosperity - e.g. - U.S. Silicon Valley The Urban World - cities today are growing in a phenomenal rate - in 1900 only 13 cities had a population of more than 1 million people; in 2008 there were 455 cities. - City, town, village = nucleated settlement - Urban:  definition: varies  census will usually define urban in terms of population density  e.g. > 1000 persons/sq. mile  census definitions can vary over time and space  urbanized area = continuously built up  metropolitan area - several cities functionally interrelated e.g. transit system e.g. police force Site and Situation Site - physical characteristics of the place where city is located Situation - location relative to other notable features in surrounding region London, Ontario Site: - forks of the Thames River - flat land Situation: - center of a good agricultural region – on Highway 401 – midway between Toronto and Windsor/Detroit ORIGINIS AND EVOLUTION OF CITITES - People need to be near one another: they gather together to form couples, families, groups organizations and towns. - beyond companionship, people need each other to sustain important support systems. - the origins of towns lie in several factors: the existence of a settled community (not a hunter-gatherer society) Urban development stages: 1) the earliest cities depended on the existence of an agricultural surplus. Food had to be provided to the urban population by the hinterland surrounding the city 2) Social organization and power often reflected in religion. Most ancient cities centered on a temple or a place, which housed the priests the granary the schools and often the ruler. Cities became the seats of central power, cementing the relationship to the hinterland 3) ??? 4) the development of a more complex economy. Cities extracted their substance from the surrounding hinterland. As the city extended its power and organization, it could extend its hold over a wider hinterland  Agricultural technology improved, the hinterland could produce more food and as methods of transportation and storage improved, cities could bring in more food and store it safely for eventual redistribution to the urban population Defining the city today - urban areas are not of a single type, structure or size - at one end of the size scale urban areas are small towns with perhaps a single main street of shops; at the opposite end, they are complex multifunctional metropolitan areas or megacities - the world urban is often used to describe such places as a town, city, suburb, or metropolitan area, but it is a general term not used to specify a particular type of settlement City/Town- denote nucleated settlements multifunctional in character, including an established central business district and both residential and non residential land uses  Towns are smaller in size and have less functional complexity than cities but they still have nuclear business concentration Suburb denotes a subsidiary area, a functionally specialize segment of a large urban complex, depend on an urban area  It may be dominantly or exclusively residential, industrial or commercial. However can be independent political entities Central City is the part of the urban area contained within the suburban ring; it usually has official boundaries Urbanized Area is a continuously built-up landscape defined by building and population densities with no reference to political boundaries  It may contain a central city and many contiguous cities, towns, suburbs and other urban tracts Metropolitan Area refers to a larger-scale functional entity, perhaps containing several operation as an integrated economic whole Site refers to the exact location of a settlement and can be described either in characteristic of the site - Classifications of cities according to site characteristic have been proposed, recognizing special placement circumstance.  These include break-of-bulk locations such as river crossing points where cargoes and people must interrupt a journey  Head of navigation or bay head location where the limits of water transportation are reached  Railhead location where a railroad ends - where sites suggest absolute location, situation indicates relative location; it places a settlement in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding areas FUNCTIONS OF CITIES - most modern cities take on multiple functions such as manufacturing, retailing, transportation hub, public administration, military uses and site of major universities - No matter what the size, urban settlements exist for the efficient performance of necessary functions 1) provision of goods and services to surrounding area 2) provision of goods and services to city itself The economic Base - every urban area has an economic base which is the activities people do to support the urban population - theses are activities such as manufacturing goods, repairing roads, managing in stores tending to the sick and teaching children Basic Sector of an urban area’s economic structure is made up of the activities of people that bring in money from outside the community Nonbasic Sector is when they are no brining new money into the community as their goods and services are not being exported  which is crucial for its internal functioning. It includes the operation of stores offices, city government. Local transit and school systems - the total economic structure of an urban area equals the sum of its basic and nonbasic activities. - it is difficult to classify work as belonging exclusively to one sector - e.g doctors may have mainly local patients and thus are members of the non basic sector but the moment they treat someone from outside the community they bring new money into the city and become pat of the basic sector - economic growth has a multiplier effects  as a city adds basic sector employment, it will acquire people filling both basic sector and nonbasic sectors positions in addition to their depends fueling population growth  Cities as central markets - cities have served as marketplaces not only for their own residents but also for the population beyond city limits for as long as they have existed Walter Christaller developed Central place theory - it is to help explain the sixe and location of settlements that were depend on small, medium and larger settlements that were dependent on each other - he postulated th
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