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Chapter 4

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Department
Geography
Course
Geography 1100
Professor
D.Kim Holland
Semester
Fall

Description
- Troposphere, the lowest layer of the earths atmosphere contains all the air, clouds and precipitation of earth Air Temperature - Insolation or solar radiation availability depends on the intensity and duration of the Sun. - Determined by 7 modifying variables:Angle, Number of Daylight hours,Amount of water vapour in the air, degree of cloud cover, nature of the surface of the earth, elevation above sea level and the degree and direction of air movement - Earth Inclination, without it the solar energy received at a given latitude would not vary during the course of the year o Location of highest incidence of incoming solar energy varies during the course of the year o June 21 , summer solstice for the Northern Hemisphere and winter solstice for thstSouth Hemisphere o December 21 , winter solstice for Northern Hemisphere and summer solstice for the Southern Hemisphere o Solar rays become more diffused the farther you get from the equator Reflection and Reradiation - Most of solar radiation is reflected or diffused in the troposphere, called reflection - Reradiation is when the earths surface returns the energy absorbed in the form of terrestrial radiation o Land has more heat available on surface and reradiates heat faster than water o Water is clear so it allows sunrays to penetrate deeper - Temperatures are affected by large bodies of water, costal areas have lower summer temperatures and higher winter temperatures comparatively o Marine environment vs continental environment Lapse Rate - Is the change in temperature with altitude in the troposphere - Temperature inversion occurs when lower latitudes are cooler than higher altitudes Air Pressure and Winds - 16.39 cubic cm of air at the earths surface weights around 6.67 kg - Air is heavier and air pressure is higher closer to the surface - Barometers measure pressure - Air attempts to even itself out by racing from heavy (cold) locations to light (warm) locations, thus the greater the difference in air pressure, the stronger the wind Pressure Gradient Force - Causes air to blow from an area of high pressure toward an area of lower pressure - Some areas of the earth’s surface have different zones of high and low pressures - The attempt to balance pressure differences cause heavy air to stay close to the earth surface and as it moves it producing winds that forces the upward movement of warm air - The closer a high – low pressure systems are, the greater the velocity of the wind Convection System: The circulatory motion of descending cool air and ascending warm air Land and Sea Breezes: Warmer air over land rises allowing cooler air from water to rush onto land (Sea Breeze). At night, warmer air over water rises allowing cooler air from land to rush onto water (Land Breeze) Mountain and Valley Breezes: Warm air rushing up mountains (valley breeze), cold air rushing down mountains (mountain breeze), caused by the heavy cool air that accumulates over snow in mountainous areas Coriolis Effect - Wind veers to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern hemisphere - If not for this, winds would move in exactly the direction specified by the pressure gradient GlobalAir-Circulation Pattern - Equatorial low pressure because of the intense solar heating, causes hi
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