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Chapter 4

Chapter Four Summary and Definitions Human geography

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Western University
Geography 1400F/G
Godwin Arku

Chapter Four PopulationWorld Patterns and Regional Trends Birth death fertility and growth rates are important in understanding the numbers composition distribution and spatial trends of population Recent explosive increases in human numbers and the prospects of continuing population expansion may be traced to sharp reductions in death rates increases in longevity and the impact of demographic momentum on a youthful population largely concentrated in the developing world Control of population numbers historically was accomplished through a demographic transition first experienced in European societies that adjusted their fertility rates downward as death rates fell and life expectancies increased The introduction of advanced technologies of preventative and curative medicine pesticides and famine relief have reduced mortality rates in developing countries without until recently always a compensating reduction in birth rates Recent fertility declines in many developing regions suggest the demographic transition is no longer limited to the advanced industrial countries and promise world population stability earlier and at the lower numbers than envisioned just a few years ago The demographic future for the next fifty years is as follows the population will be 24 billion people bigger by 2050 and nearly all of that growth will be in less developed countries In some developed nations population increases will largely reflect immigrationFuture population growth in absolute and relative terms will be less than the recent past Populations will be more urban than at any time in the past Finally the population will be much older on average than it is now and collectively population pressures will force governments at all levels to serve their citizens changing needs and aspirations Thus population has implications for urban geography resource management development the international economic system and health and wellbeing geography People are unevenly distributed across the earth and the ecumene or permanently inhabited portion of the globe is discontinuous and
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