Chapter six: geographies of ethnicity, language, and religion threads of diversity and unity: Ethnicity, language, and religion are symbols of identity serving both as threads of unity and diversity in the complex web of human cultures. Depending upon the spatial and cultural contexts these identities can assume varying degrees of importance serving to include and unify people or exclude and divide them. Ethnic diversity is a reality in most countries of the world and is increasing in many of them. Immigration, refugee streams, guest workers, and job seekers all contribute to the mixing or peoples and cultures in an area but the mixing is not complete. In much of the world spatial separation identifies home territories within the ethnic group as dominant and with which it is identified. In societies of immigrants such homelands are rare. Ethnic enclaves of self selection or forced ghettos of imposed separation from larger host society are more common.