7 & 8 Urban Systems and Urban Structures.docx

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Lecture 7 & Chapter 8 (Urban Systems and Urban Structures)
Global patterns of urbanization (p 249-252)
Metropolitan areas (over 1 million people) have increase from 12 in 1900 to 411 in 2000.
25 of the 411 have a population of over 10 million branded by the UN as a megacity
In 1800 2% of the world was urbanized, in 2007 over 50% was urbanized estimated to reach 60%
by 2030. The vast majority of this growth centered in low-to-middle income countries
Highly developed countries will see a rise in multiculturalism from immigrants seeking
opportunities in their cities. However, this brings the problem of social fragmentation, minority
segregation, isolation, and poverty affecting primarily the largest cities of the inflow.
Urban growth varies from region to region
Urbanization levels are highest in the more developed regions (75% or more)
Less developed regions have a lower levels of urbanization
… but a more rapid rate of urbanization
Both regions have two things in common
1. Experiencing high evolution rate- number of people in both regions are rising
2. Cities themselves are large and growing
Increase in the number of large metropolitan areas
12 metropolitan areas had population of 1m or more in 1900
The number increased to 411 metropolitan areas by 2000
Outcomes many including
Growing multiculturalism of urban areas
Increasing social problems e.g. poverty, homelessness, crime, unemployment etc.
Current major economic functions of world cities:
o Tourism, commodity trade, FDI
o Commercial banking, investment banking, insurance, and financial services
o Political power, locations for non profit institutions
o Consumption of luxury goods and mass produced goods
o Advanced producer services
o Centers of large TNCs
o Culture, arts, and entertainment
Emerging urban patterns
Growth of megacities
Reasons include
1. Person migration choices
2. Corporate decision
3. Government decision
4. Initial advantages
Primate Cities
See below
World Cities
See below
Key Urban concepts (see lecture slides)
Mega cities
A very large citywith a population of 10m or more characterized by both primacy and
centrality within its national economy
A condition in which the population of the largest city in an urban system is
disproportionately large in relation to the second-largest and third-largest cities in that
Example: London (6m) vs Birmingham (1m)
Primate city
Glossary Definition:
A country’s leading city, disproportionately larger and functionally more complex than any
other; a city dominating an urban hierarchy composed of a base of small towns and an
absence of intermediate-sized cities.
A country’s leading city as evidenced by its measures of primacy
World city
Glossary Definition:
One of a small number of interconnected, internationally dominant centres (e.g., New York,
London, Tokyo) that together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
Cities in which a disproportionate share of the world’s most important business—economic,
political, and culturalis conducted and that serve as headquarters to transnational
corporations etc. etc.
Leading Tier Cities: Tokyo, New York, London
Mega polis
Glossary Definition:
1. A large, sprawled urban complex with contained open, non-urban land, created through
the spread and joining of separate metropolitan areas;
2. When capitalized the name applied to the continuous functionally urban area of coastal
northeastern United states from Maine to Virginia
A large, sprawled urban complex with contained open, non-urban land, created through the
spread and joining of separate metropolitan areas
Example: Maine to Virginia or Boston-to-Norfolk.
Windsor-Toronto-Montreal corridor