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Canada (161,663)
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Chapter 3


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Geography 2010A/B
Suzanne Greaves

CH3: Regional Geography of Canada The first people - Old world hunters (Asians) who crossed land bridge (Beringia) into Alaska & Yukon o Corridor in glacier opened = migrated south o West coast sea migration = island hopping - Paleo Indians (descendents of Old World hunters) =first people of North America o Spearheads but mammoth died out = stay in one area  Local game in fish & plants o Two culture areas: region with common set of attitudes  Common set of natural conditions = similar plants and animals  Common set of hunting, fishing and food gathering techniques - Indians (crossed Bering Strait) o From Mexico northward = adapted agricultural system  Hunt caribou/ farmed and traded - Arctic Migration o Before settlement= 1. Melting of ice sheets & 2. Hunting technique for arctic enviro o Paleo-Eskimos  Eastward with sea-based hunting technique (harpoon) o Thule (Ancestors of Inuit): spread eastward from Alaska  Small Ice Age = no whale = seal and caribou - Initial Contacts o Europeans thought Canada = terra nullius: empty land although occupied  Original population died out b/c of loss of hunting grounds & new diseases  Huronia: died from contact with French & killed off o John Cabot: first European in Canada - Cultural Regions o 7 cultural regions  Eastern woodlands: agriculture & hunting  Eastern subarctic: cree invented snowshoes for moosehunt  Western subarctic: hunted caribou  Arctic: Inuit  Plains: bison  Plateau: valley  Northwest coast: rich marine life Second People - Colonization of North America by French & British th o 17 century: French & England established colonies o 1608: Champlain founded Quebec City = first permanent settlement st o 1750: population French > Indian - 1 large wave of immigrants: refugees from U.S o Loyalists: supported Britain during American War of Independence defeated nd - 2 wave of immigrants: British Isles o A million people from British Isles to British North America b/c of poor economic conditions & job opportunities in cod fishery + Irish potato problem o Greatly changed Canada  3 million people by confederation  Mostly English speaking  French saw Canada as two founding peoples  English saw equality among provinces  Confederation = shared provincial power  British = majority = dominates political affairs  British = minority in Quebec = dominant business group o Therefore, wanted confederation Third People - For Ottawa, 2 advantages for encouraging settlement o Threat of American settling = diminished o Creation of grain economy would provide freight for Canadian Pacific Railway - Must of West unoccupied = lured land hungry peasant from Ukraine (grassland = good) o Multiculturalism and pluralism came into play Territorial Evolution of Canada - 1867: British North America Act: united colonies  Dominion of Canada o New Brunswick, Nova Scotia & upper lower Canada - 1870: Rupert’s Land + North-western territories = North-West Territories - For Britain, union of North America had 3 benefits: o Better chance for political survival against U.S o Improved environment for British investment (i.e railway) o Reduction in British expenditures for defence of North American colonies - For the colonies: o Larger domestic market for manufacturing industries  Atlantic: little interest in union b/c of Gr. Britain dies o Stronger defensive position against invasion by U.S o 1866 raid into New Brunswick made Maritime not content with just being a colony o End of Canadian American Reciprocity Treaty (equal treatment back and forth) = Maritime looking for trade opportunities inside Canada Boundaries: Faultlines: - Regional issue National - Centralist/Decentralist: o Regional challenge to Canada’s east-west alignment, summed up in 4 ways:  Regions separated by great distances = difficult for commerce & trade  Regions compete with each other & provinces have trade barriers  Provinces compete over federal funding  Canadian Constitution = health, edu problem of province while fed has $  Geography encourages Canada as part of U.S economic orbit o Regional Tensions  Railway essential = sovereignty over Western territories  Link west with rest of Canada  Settle the Canadian Prairies  Provide export route for Prairie grain  Create market in West for Eastern industries  1879: National Policy = gave power to Central Canada o Two basis for centralist/decentralist faultline  Economic power = Central b/c of industrial core  Political power= big population & greater representation(House of Commons) & Federal Cabinet o National Policy & Regional Tensions  National Policy: protected Canadian manufacturing from foreign countries b/c of high tariffs = create national industrial core  Hinterlands = selling low, buying high  Accentuated economic differences & thus increased regional tension & prevented growth elsewhere:  Maritimes: could not sell to New England b/c of tariffs, must sell to small local market (railway), great distance to continental market  Western farmers: sell grain worldwide = low prices + transportation, but must buy machinery from Central Canada = high prices   led to 1920s Progressive Party arguing for free trade  Railway (1929) to Hudson Bay = lower transport  But higher Marine insurance – fear of icebergs  B.C: natural market overseas due to geographic position & prairies used B.C port  Opened new port closer to British Isles  Higher priced goods from Central Canada  Territorial North: ignored until WWII  Remained fur trade, no presence unless resource developments occurred  Later: roads to resource(took long b/c Ottawa paid all $) o Political Power Struggle  Core had economic power but also political power b/c of Ottawa  Fed: equalization payments but had to balance national economic interests with regional ones  Political parties in house of commons based on population  Senate suppose to provide regional balance but appointed by Prime Minister = more about loyalty than regional interest o Western Alienation  Resource suppose to be provincial, but 1980 National Energy Program  Goals of N
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