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Canada (161,538)
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Chapter 4


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Geography 2010A/B
Suzanne Greaves

CH4: Canada’s Human Face Canada’s Population - 33 million - Demography: scientific study of human population - Population size o 3 primary factors accounting for growth  Natural increase  Population from territorial expansion  Immigration - Population Density o 2 largest country in the world by geographic size o Population Density: number of people/land  Canada = 3.5 persons/square km = low population density  North: 0.03ppl/km3 Ontario: 13.4ppl/km3 o Physiological density: population density expressed as amount of used land/ person - Population Distribution o Population distribution: dispersal of people within a geographic area o Ecumene: inhabited area aka core o Ontario & Quebec = demographic core – 62% of Canada’s population o 4 Population Zones:  Core: densely populated  Secondary core: narrow band across southern Canada  Third zone: sparse population, narrow band of the boreal forest (-1% of pop)  Resource town: urban place with single focus economic extraction  Regional service centers: economic functions provided to residents  Native settlements: aboriginal centers  Quaternary zone: affected by net out-migration Urban Population - 80% population = cities & towns - Urban = 1000 pop & 400 ppl/km3 - Census Metropolitan Areas o Census metropolitan area: urban core (pop 100,000) with adjacent urban and rural areas (high social and economic integration with core) o 33 CMA o Greatest rate of increase = Barrie - Variation in Urban Population by Geographic Region o Urbanization is associated with economic development o Shift from rural  urban:  Declining numbers in agriculture due to mechanization  Increase in job opportunities in urban places Population Change - Population increase: natural increase + net migration over period of time - Population growth: increase in % over time - Rate of natural increase: difference between crude birth rate & crude death rate o Crude birth rate: births per 1000 in a yr o Crude death rate: deaths per 1000 in a yr - Net migration: difference between in and out migration o Push-Pull model: factors at home push, attractive factors aboard pull - Natural Increase o Determined by births –deaths - Demographic Transition Theory o Demographic transition theory: describes population change in industrial societies  Change occurs when society moves from pre-industrial to industrial  Late pre-industrial: high birth & death = no natural increase o Canada did not experience this  Early industrial: low death rate = high natural increase  Late industrial: low birth rate = high, declining rates of natural increase  Early post-industrial: low birth and death = stable population  Late post-industrial: low birth rates = declining population Age structure: - Age dependency o Age dependency ratio: ratio of persons in the dependency age group (below 15 or over 64) Immigration - 3 reasons Ottawa encourages immigration o Newcomers keep Canada`s population increasing o Newcomers add valuable members to Canada`s workforce o Canada takes in refugees fleeing oppressive socio-political conditions in homeland - Key issue is not number of immigrants but how well they enrich and add to Canada`s society - Why immigration o Immigration = 70% of population o Immigration ensures that Canada`s population keeps increasing o Form a larger proportion of natural population = increasing diversity o Question the validity of the vision of two founding people o Largest cities = different from rest of Canada - Ethnicity
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